IPA for Ufhewat Knrawi

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The charts below show the way in which the IPA represents Ufhewat Knrawi pronunciations. English approximations are loose in some cases and are only intended to give a general idea of the pronunciation. For more information, see Help:IPA.

This page is only for the variety of Knrawi spoken on Ufhewat Island. For other varieties see Knrawi IPA guides.

IPA Keys
Aelatha
Attian
Avendonian
Ayeri
Biscayan
Brittainese
Cet
Cha
Evonish
Favlona
Guimin
Gwaxol
Hantza
High Valyrian
Iaskyon
Jukpë
Kaikiwan
Kihā́mmic
Knrawi
Kunarek
Lôppic
Maryan Coptic
Messinese
Mihousapeja
Moshurian
Owaex
Pomorian
Qafesona
Rangyayo
Soc'ul'
Trây
Umbrean
IPA Example Translation (near) equivalent
Consonants
f huf small face
h ufh middle have
j shaia house yet
k hyk sugarcane scout
nkh far cow
tjic to cook ski
kʲʰ chuh raw key
guq small island square
kʷʰ uqh snake queen
m iim because man
mawḿ to mix man
n nias woman not
jna star not
ŋ thga wind sang
ŋˀ wga long sang
p puskj yam spin
cuph snake burrow pin
r marg south rayo (Spanish)
jrn land rayo (Spanish)
s cniz to try sing
zherg cloud sing
t riti eye start
nth water tart
v vuin corner have
wvg to reach have
w rtiu where wing
ɰ aythá jasper agave (Spanish)
ɰˀ hyg cold agave (Spanish)
x jua all loch
asi shark he
xʲʰ shiupii wheat noodles he
niwuu guilty white
ʔ ceh many uh-oh
IPA Example Translation (near) equivalent
Vowels
a agu face father
kaau five father
ɒ kjaw to puncture bot
ɒː waay moth bot
isji big bed
e̞ː ciarcá cobalt face
ə sheya large island about
əː to say above
i it head beet
iarti salt beet
zjeyu shore boat
o̞ː i lizard boat
ø̞ tiqíj to dry up können (German)
ø̞ː jaqia wild cannabis Schön (German)
u cuy angry boot
pùa liver boot
y wi child üppig (German)
qhia day über (German)
Tones
˥ ik to see
˩ ìy to break
˥˧ cûathay sapphire
˧˩ cûathay sapphire (plural)

Differences from standard Knrawi

    • /n/ and /ŋ/ do not assimilate.
  • /θ,θʰ/ are realized as [s,sʰ].
    • Labialized /θ,θʰ/ are realized as [f,h].
  • /k̟,k̟ʰ,x̟,x̟ʰ/ are realized as [kʲ,kʲʰ,xʲ,xʲʰ].
  • /k̠,k̠ʰ/ are realized as [k,kʰ].
  • /x̠,ʍ,h/ are realized as [x,xʷ,ʔ].
  • sequences of /x̠,ʍ,h/ and sonorants (and vice versa) are realized as glottalized sonorants.
    • Non-syllabic and then following sonorants take priority.
      • Sequences of /x̠,ʍ,h/ and a syllabic sonorant (and vice versa) with no adjacent sonorant or vowel are realized as [əCˀ].
  • /ɹ/ is realized as [r].
    • Labialized /ɹ/ is realized as [v] (which doesn't merge with [w]).
  • /ɉ/ is realized as [ɰ].
  • /ˣ/ is realized as [ʰ].
    • /θˣ,x̟ˣ/ (including labialized /θˣ/) are realized as [x].
  • Fortition does not occur.
  • Two-sonorant clusters syllabify the first sonorant.
  • Syllabic consonants are desyllabified adjacent to vowels (including nonsyllabic vowels).
    • Syllabic [m,β] and other syllabic consonants are realized as [o̞] and [ə] respectively.
  • /ɪ,ʊ/ are realized as [i,u].
    • Unstressed /ɪ,ʊ/ are realized as [e̞,o̞].
    • /ɪɪ,ʊʊ/ are realized as [e̞j,o̞w].
  • [i,e̞,a] are realized as [y,ø̞,ɒ] adjacent to labiovelar consonants (except [w], but including deleted underlying /ʍ/).
  • Unstressed /a/ and [ə] are realized as
    • [o̞] adjacent to labiovelar consonants.
    • [ə] if not [o̞].
  • Sequences of unstressed [e̞,ø̞,ə,o̞] and /a/ (stressed or unstressed) are realized as [e̞ː,ø̞ː,əː,o̞ː] respectively.
  • [ʔ̞] is realized as [ː].
    • [e̞ːʔ̞,ø̞ːʔ̞,əːʔ̞,o̞ːʔ̞] are realized as [e̞ː,ø̞ː,əː,o̞ː].
  • /˧˩/ is distinct from /˥˩/ [˥˧].