Nordulaki

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Nordulaki
nordûlaki
þêuk nordûlaki
Pronunciation [norˈdu(ː)laki]
[ˈθeʊ̯k norˈdu(ː)laki]
Created by Lili21
Setting Calémere
Date Oct 2017
Region Central Evandor
Ethnicity Nordûlaki
Native speakers 290,000,000  (2312)
Language family
Evandorian languages
  • Northern Evandorian
    • Velken languages
      • Old Nordûlaki
        • Nordulaki
Writing system Íscégon script for Nordûlaki
Official status
Official language in Nordulik, Raxinara, Listord, Kerbellion, Sprêny, Peħlleit, Ferbêny, Alêig, Koitrûx, many others
ISO 639-3

Nordulaki, natively (has) þêuk nordûlaki [(has) ˈθeʊ̯k norˈdu(ː)laki], is an Evandorian language of the planet Calémere spoken most notably in the central-northern Evandorian country of Nordulik (nat. Nordûlik; Old Nordulaki: Nordoğlik) but also in many former colonies - for a total of 35 countries - around the planet.

Today, Nordulaki is the second most important and most spoken language in the Western world, after its western neighbor Cerian, and Nordulaki itself was the main diplomatic and scientific language of the world until half a century ago. It is the fourth most spoken language on the planet, after Cerian, Chlouvānem, and Spocian.

Nordulaki is a member of the Velken branch, a sub-branch of Northern Evandorian - which includes the Velken languages and Gathura at the northern end of the continent. Nordulaki's closest sibling is Spyŋun (Spinu in Nordulaki), spoken in its small southern neighbor Spyŋ, but both of them still have many similarities with the Landward Velken sub-branch to the east, which includes, most notably, Kalese; a noticeable distinction between Nordulaki and Spyŋun and the Landward Velken languages is the former two's complete lack of the aspectual distinctions that characterize the verbs in Landward Velken languages. Nordulaki is among the most isolating Evandorian languages, except for nouns - which display the typical Northern Evandorian trait of having evolved a genitive case, which Proto-Evandorian did not have.

External History

Even if I only started working on this version in October 2017, Nordûlaki is, together with Cerian, one of my oldest conlangs as far as its name is concerned - I first made two concountries named "Ceria" and "Nordulikh" in a map I made around 2007 or 2008. Ever since I began working on Calémere in 2014, I decided that those two countries were to be the most important countries of the Western world - I dare say Ceria is my conworld's England while Nordûlik is its analogue of France, though by their placement it'd be better to say that Ceria is the France-looking one and Nordûlik is more like Germany. Nordûlaki itself is among my favourite conlangs of mine aesthetically - grammatically I did not have many definite inspirations, just some ideas I tried to use while in a grammar that made sense as an Evandorian language; aesthetically it's quite easy to notice the influence from Catalan.

Phonology

Phonemes given here are from Standard Evandorian Nordûlaki.

Orthography

Consonants

→ PoA
↓ Manner
Labial Labiodental Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasals m m n n ny ɲ
Plosives p p
b b
t t
d d
k k
g g
Affricates ts ts
it[1]
ig[2]
Fricatives f f s s
þ θ
x ʃ
h h
Laterals l l ll ʎ
Trill r r
Approximants j j w w

Vowels

Front Central Back
High i î i (iː) u û u (uː)
High-mid ê e ô o
Low-mid e (é) ɛ o (ó) ɔ
Low a â a (aː)
u-Diphthongs iu êu eu iʊ̯ eʊ̯ ɛʊ̯ ou au ɔʊ̯ ɑʊ̯
i-Diphthongs êi ei ai eɪ̯ ɛɪ̯ aɪ̯ ui oi uɪ̯ oɪ̯
e-Diphthongs ie ie̯ ue ue̯

The contrast between high-mid and low-mid vowels only exists in stressed syllables; a circumflex accent denotes the closer vowel, while the more open vowel is only marked with an acute in grammatical paradigms or if the accent is irregular (not on the penultimate).
The length contrast for the /i u a/ qualities (from Old Nordûlaki /eɣ oɣ aɣ/ respectively - /eɣ/ also from /øɣ/) is mostly gerontolectal and also only existing in stressed syllables, but still distinguished orthographically, both in minimal pairs (mir "shoe" (< ONor müre), mîr "palace" (< ONor möğru)) and in other words (notably Nordûlik (< ONor Nordoğlik) and nordûlaki (< nordoğlaki)).

Note that, orthographically, what appears to be an i-diphthong followed by t or g and either a consonant or nothing is not a diphthong but a sequence of a vowel plus an affricate, compare e.g. raitu /raɪ̯tu/ "flower" and prait /pratʃ/ (future particle).

Prosody

Stress

Stress is phonemic and usually on the penultimate syllable; if it appears on a previous syllable, it is marked orthographically. Except for monosyllables, words are never stressed on the last syllable if it is open. Stress is always marked orthographically with a circumflex accent if the stressed vowel is /e o/ or a (mostly historic) long vowel /aː iː uː/.

Intonation

Phonotactics

Morphophonology

Morphology

Nouns

Syntax

Constituent order

Noun phrase

Verb phrase

Sentence phrase

Dependent clauses

Example texts

Other resources

Notes

  1. ^ tj word-initially.
  2. ^ gj word-initially.