|Native speakers||290,000,000 (2312)|
|Writing system||Íscégon script for Nordûlaki|
|Official language in||Nordulik, Raxinara, Listord, Kerbellion, Sprêny, Peħlleit, Ferbêny, Alêig, Koitrûx, many others|
Nordulaki, natively (has) þêuk nordûlaki [(has) ˈθeʊ̯k norˈdu(ː)laki], is an Evandorian language of the planet Calémere spoken most notably in the central-northern Evandorian country of Nordulik (nat. Nordûlik; Old Nordulaki: Nordoğlik) but also in many former colonies - for a total of 35 countries - around the planet.
Today, Nordulaki is the second most important and most spoken language in the Western world, after its western neighbor Cerian, and Nordulaki itself was the main diplomatic and scientific language of the world until half a century ago. It is the fourth most spoken language on the planet, after Cerian, Chlouvānem, and Spocian.
Nordulaki is a member of the Velken branch, a sub-branch of Northern Evandorian - which includes the Velken languages and Gathura at the northern end of the continent. Nordulaki's closest sibling is Spyŋun (Spinu in Nordulaki), spoken in its small southern neighbor Spyŋ, but both of them still have many similarities with the Landward Velken sub-branch to the east, which includes, most notably, Kalese; a noticeable distinction between Nordulaki and Spyŋun and the Landward Velken languages is the former two's complete lack of the aspectual distinctions that characterize the verbs in Landward Velken languages. Nordulaki is among the most isolating Evandorian languages, except for nouns - which display the typical Northern Evandorian trait of having evolved a genitive case, which Proto-Evandorian did not have.
- 1 External History
- 2 Phonology
- 3 Morphology
- 4 Syntax
- 5 Example texts
- 6 Other resources
- 7 Notes
Even if I only started working on this version in October 2017, Nordûlaki is, together with Cerian, one of my oldest conlangs as far as its name is concerned - I first made two concountries named "Ceria" and "Nordulikh" in a map I made around 2007 or 2008. Ever since I began working on Calémere in 2014, I decided that those two countries were to be the most important countries of the Western world - I dare say Ceria is my conworld's England while Nordûlik is its analogue of France, though by their placement it'd be better to say that Ceria is the France-looking one and Nordûlik is more like Germany. Nordûlaki itself is among my favourite conlangs of mine aesthetically - grammatically I did not have many definite inspirations, just some ideas I tried to use while in a grammar that made sense as an Evandorian language; aesthetically it's quite easy to notice the influence from Catalan.
Phonemes given here are from Standard Evandorian Nordûlaki.
| → PoA
|Nasals||m m||n n||ny ɲ|
|Plosives|| p p
| t t
| k k
|Affricates|| ts ts
|Fricatives||f f|| s s
|Laterals||l l||ll ʎ|
|Approximants||j j||w w|
|High||i î i (iː)||u û u (uː)|
|High-mid||ê e||ô o|
|Low-mid||e (é) ɛ||o (ó) ɔ|
|Low||a â a (aː)|
|u-Diphthongs||iu êu eu iʊ̯ eʊ̯ ɛʊ̯||ou au ɔʊ̯ ɑʊ̯|
|i-Diphthongs||êi ei ai eɪ̯ ɛɪ̯ aɪ̯||ui oi uɪ̯ oɪ̯|
|e-Diphthongs||ie ie̯||ue ue̯|
The contrast between high-mid and low-mid vowels only exists in stressed syllables; a circumflex accent denotes the closer vowel, while the more open vowel is only marked with an acute in grammatical paradigms or if the accent is irregular (not on the penultimate).
The length contrast for the /i u a/ qualities (from Old Nordûlaki /eɣ oɣ aɣ/ respectively - /eɣ/ also from /øɣ/) is mostly gerontolectal and also only existing in stressed syllables, but still distinguished orthographically, both in minimal pairs (mir "shoe" (< ONor müre), mîr "palace" (< ONor möğru)) and in other words (notably Nordûlik (< ONor Nordoğlik) and nordûlaki (< nordoğlaki)).
Note that, orthographically, what appears to be an i-diphthong followed by t or g and either a consonant or nothing is not a diphthong but a sequence of a vowel plus an affricate, compare e.g. raitu /raɪ̯tu/ "flower" and prait /pratʃ/ (future particle).
Stress is phonemic and usually on the penultimate syllable; if it appears on a previous syllable, it is marked orthographically. Except for monosyllables, words are never stressed on the last syllable if it is open. Stress is always marked orthographically with a circumflex accent if the stressed vowel is /e o/ or a (mostly historic) long vowel /aː iː uː/.
- tj word-initially.
- gj word-initially.