Tsimulh languages

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Tsimulh languages/Lexicon


Tsimulh
Setting Tricin
Geographic
distribution:
Much of Txapoalli
Linguistic classification: One of Tricin's primary language families
Proto-language: Proto-Tsimulh
Subdivisions:
Hetmic
Idosic
Swuntsimic
Rencadic
Pelhyysic

The Tsimulh languages (Eevo: bo brits Tsimys, Windermere: fi imcduay Tsimăł, from Sacred Swuntsim tsiməσ, 'tribe', pl. of ʔiməσ 'tribesman') form the largest language family in Txapoalli. The proto-language is Proto-Tsimulh, whose aesthetics is inspired by Old Chinese and the Salish languages.

Todo

  • -s: past tense, genitive
  • -əσ: some adjectival suffix
  • -iyad = augmentative
  • Reduplication
  • relativizer/relative forms for verbs
  • m n > Sf. v dh? (-tsiv in Swuntsim ~ Tsimulh?)
  • N.tugəŋ = water (as a liquid) - Sf. tüdjo
  • k.tugəŋ = body of water - Sf. tjtüdjo
  • Work on Talman Swuntsim first
  • Some Tsimulh langs should gain liquids only to lose them again
  • Might not have ejectives

Languages

There are estimated to be over 1,400 Tsimulh languages, making it the second largest family in Tricin.

The four most well-known Tsimulh languages are Hetomic, Idosian, Swuntsim and Pelhyys. The others are spoken by small minorities.

Urheimat

Somewhere in Txapoalli

Phonology

Phonotactics

Consonants

Most notably, Proto-Tsimulh had no liquids.

Bilabial Alveolar Palatal Velar Uvular Glottal
central lateral plain labialized plain labialized
Nasal m n ŋ ŋʷ
Stop p t k q ʔ
Affricate c ξ
Fricative s σ x x̌ʷ h
Approximant y w

Vowels

i u e a /i u ə a/

Morphology

Proto-Tsimulh and Tsimulh languages are almost exclusively prefixing.

Nouns

Noun classes

Proto-Tsimulh had a noun class system like the Bantu languages. There were 12 noun classes, which are numbered as follows:

  1. ʔə́-, pl. cə́- = humans, spirits
  2. bú-, pl. də́- = animals and other things (such as weather phenomena and organs) that sense or move on their own
  3. pà-, pl. pí- = most plants and mushrooms; things that grow, food
  4. sə̀-, pl. sì- = collections or large things
  5. sù-, pl. σə́- = roughly round, compact objects
  6. má-, pl. wə́- = long objects; tools, instruments, devices, food item
  7. kə̀-, pl. bí- = places, locations, slots
  8. gú-, pl. nə̀- = various... including fluids (powder, water, liquids, fire, light, waves, wind, ...)
  9. σí-, pl. wí- = time periods; events; things that are temporary (e.g. ice)
  10. tì- = abstractions, manner, way
  11. t’ímə̀- = infinitives, verbal nouns
  12. pə̀dá- = -ness, -hood

In Proto-Tsimulh, verbs and determiners agreed with their head nouns in number and noun class. The descendant Tsimulh languages can be divided into 5 types depending on the type of agreement system they have:

  • Type A: Traditional, strictly formal (e.g. Sacred Swuntsim)
  • Type B: Traditional with general animate concords (e.g. Hetmic; Pelhyys)
  • Type C: Animacy-based SG/PL-marking (e.g. Talman Swuntsim)
  • Type D: SG/PL-marking only (e.g. Idosian)
  • Type E: No concords at all (e.g. [retroflexy tsimulh language])

Possession

Same as verbal concord affixes with the addition of a buffer affix

Verbs

Noun class prefixes

TODO: Some of the class markers should be different from class markers on nouns.

  • I = kʷə-
  • you (sg) = xʷə-
  • we = wə-
  • you (pl) = cu-
  • Noun class prefixes: Same as nominal ones

Tense affixes

Some verbal infix, like n

Tenses:

  • present
  • recent past
  • remote past
  • irrealis (can be used alone or with a modal particle in daughter languages): dę-

Evidentiality

Numbers

The numerals 1-9 inflected for noun class; 10 and higher units did not.

(Sacred Swuntsim)

1: *-an

2: *-xʷiš

3: *-ʔiyəm

4: *-udzuq

5: *-t'uŋ

6: *-čayədz

7: *-buč'əŋ

8: *-gwiməʔ

9: *-anay

10: *-kʷ'in

Derivation

Deriving nouns

maybe they'd have derivational prefixes that are a certain noun class like IE languages do

Deriving verbs