(Bro.) barônea, barôny-fatanea|
(Fth.) faϑane, broń-faϑane
(Moa.) mwåmahimbušihy, baruñ-fahanæ
(Bro.) [baˈronea̯] [baˈronʲ ˈfatanea̯]|
(Fth.) [ˈfaθɐnə], [ˌbɾoɲ ˈfaθɐnə]
(Moa.) [mwɔmahimbuˈɕiç], [baˈruɲ ˈfahanɛ]
|Region||Central Márusúturon (Bronic plains)|
|Native speakers||51,000,000 (6424 / 2312)|
(Bro.) Skyrdegan script for Bronic|
(Fth.) Skyrdegan script for Fathanic
(Moa.) Chlouvānem script for Moamatemposisy (unofficial)
|Official language in||
as Bronic: Brono, (regional) the Chlouvānem Inquisition, Ylvostydh|
as Fathanic: Fathan
Brono-Fathanic (Bronic variant: barônea, barôny-fatanea, fully ta fehoavana ta barôny-fatanea; Fathanic variant: faϑane, broń-faϑane, fully ta fihŏwan ta broń-faϑane), usually just Bronic or Fathanic, is a pluricentric Calémerian language, spoken mainly in the two Márusúturonian countries of Brono (Barôno, Bronu) and Fathan (Fatan, Faϑan) and in the Chlouvānem diocese of Hivampaida (Moa.: Hiwåfaiha, Bro.: Hivoafaida, Fth.: Hivŏfayðe) lying between them, and also, regionally, in the southern part of Ylvostydh.
It is a Samaidulic language of the Eastern branch, thus distantly related with its western neighbor, Qualdomelic (Bro.: Koadromeali; Fth.: Kwažumaey; a Western Samaidulic language).
Of the two major variants of Brono-Fathanic, Bronic is by far the most spoken (amounting to 90% of Brono-Fathanic speakers) and phonologically the most conservative. Fathanic is the official standard in the country of Fathan and, anyway, constantly sees notable Bronic influence on it. Until a hundred years ago, the Bronic standard was official all throughout the Brono-Fathanic lands; it was only during the Kaiṣamā, when the pre-Nāɂahilūmi Bronic-speaking territory had been divided into two parts (Brono as an independent country, but inside the Union, while the rest (Fathan and present-day Hivampaida - the latter also containing the city of Moamatempony (Måmatempuñih in Chlouvānem), at the time the largest of the Bronic-speaking world) had been annexed to the Chlouvānem Inquisition), that the ethnic diocese of Fathan started using as its official language the local dialect, Fathanic.
Hivampaida, meanwhile, had not been annexed to either Brono or Fathan and was not an ethnic diocese - about 60% of its Bronic-speaking population moved to either Brono or Fathan in the following decades and the influx of people from the rest of the Union (mainly Chlouvānem, but also many Taruebs and Soenyubi) meant that that area has been increasingly Chlouvānemized. When, in 6385 (39 years ago), Fathan became independent, predominantly Chlouvānem-speaking (but with a widespread Bronic vernacular) Hivampaida remained part of the Inquisition, as it still is.
A third Brono-Fathanic variant, Moamatemposisy (endonym ta fewåwanye ta mwåmahimbušihy, måmatempuñiyi dhāḍa in Chl.), is the local vernacular of the Chlouvānem diocese of Hivampaida, spoken by about 50% of people there. It has a de facto written standard, using the Chlouvānem script, commonly used by its speakers; however it is not officially regulated and the official standard of Brono-Fathanic used in the diocese is the Bronic one. Note that Hivampaida is not an ethnic diocese, but due to its border location Bronic and Skyrdagor are both commonly used in official contexts there (the city of Moamatempony is located on the 12 km wide Yvyslad Strait (Bro.: vy tantanane vy Ivisilade; Chl.: eveṣlada ga šimbroe; Sky. Yvyslad szelekthyv), dividing the southernmost of the Skyrdegan islands from the mainland of Márusúturon).
- 1 The Bronic-speaking area
- 2 Phonology
- 3 Morphology
- 4 Syntax
- 5 Vocabulary
- 6 Example texts
- 7 Other resources
- 8 Notes
The Bronic-speaking area
The Bronic speaking area is a large plain area - with some noticeable hilly areas inside - on the southern coast of the Skyrdegan Inner Sea, just south of the main islands of Skyrdagor. The whole area reaches from 42ºN (northern Fathan) to 33°N (the southernmost tip of Hivampaida, not too distant from the southernmost tip of Brono). The area stretches inland at most about 1000 km (in eastern Brono) and at least 150 (northern Fathan); the climate in most of the area is defined as humid subtropical, sheltered from the colder northern winds by the Skyrdegan islands, but also out of reach from tropical influences because of the over 6000 m high plateaus to the south (the southern third of Hivampaida is part of this plateau area) - it mostly continues the mediterranean climate of Qualdomailor, but is markedly more humid and, especially in inland Brono and most of Fathan, winters can be chilly with occasional bursts of frost from the northern winds. Snow falls in most of Fathan and parts of inland Brono, but almost never at sea level.
Brono and Fathan are homogeneously Brono-Fathanic-speaking, with dialects of the language forming a continuum throughout the area, with a moderately high mutual intellegibility between the most extreme forms; the main minority language is Gorjonur Skyrdagor in Fathan - the language of neighboring Gorjan - and Chlouvānem (incl. daughter languages) in Brono. Hivampaida is mostly diglossic, with classical Chlouvānem being the lingua franca but Moamatemposisy, a Bronic variant, being the vernacular of about half of the population. Note, though, that southern Hivampaida, despite ultimately being a highland basin drained by the river Hŏrlaš (Bro.: Hoarelasy, Chl.: Hårelasih), the major river of Fathan, is mostly devoid of Brono-Fathanic speakers.
Both Bronic and Fathanic are written with their adaptation of the Skyrdegan alphabet, which uses almost the same letterforms as Skyrdagor, except for the r glyph which is a different semplification of a more archaic common glyph. Fathanic uses some diacritics in addition to it.
Moamatemposisy is commonly written with an adaptation of the Chlouvānem abugida, using the glyphs for ph and v (which, in Chlouvānem, represent /pʰ ʋ/, absent from Moamatemposisy) to represent the phonemes /f w/ which do not exist in Chlouvānem. Accordingly, they are romanized as f w. This is however only done in an informal level (chats and shops), while on street signs and in all formal and official uses the written standard used is Standard Bronic, even if read with a markedly Moamatemposisy pronunciation. Moamatemposisy is transcribed and subtitled as Bronic in Brono and the Inquisition, but as Fathanic in Fathan.
/j/ is only phonemic in loanwords - which come predominantly from Chlouvānem, Skyrdagor, or (a minority) from Qualdomelic.
The phonemic status of /θ/ and /x/ is disputed, as they can be analyzed as intervocalic allophones of /t/ and /k/ respectively, but in present-day Fathanic, often also represented orthographically, vowel syncope has meant that they are not intervocalic anymore. Intervocalic /p/ similarly becomes [f], but /f/ was already a Fathanic phoneme.
Moamatemposisy has an inventory similar to Fathanic, but merges intervocalic /θ ð/ with /h/ into the latter, and does not lenite intervocalic /k/. Young speakers of Moamatemposisy may merge /ŋ/ and /l/ into /ɴ̆/ and use [ʀ] for /r/ because of greater Chlouvānem influence.
/o/ is a fairly marginal phoneme, only appearing in stressed syllables; many people merge it with /u/ in all but a few words (a notable one always pronounced with /o/ is Barôno "Brono" /baˈronu/ and all derivates).
/u/ is pronounced [ʷ] word-finally, and word-final /i/ is written y and pronounced [ʲ] (except in monosyllables).
Bronic, in stark contrast to Fathanic, has almost no vowel reduction in unstressed syllables: only pretonic /a/ is reduced to [ə], but only if the tonic vowel is /e o a/.
Phonemically, the inventory of Fathanic may be said to be essentially the same as the Bronic one, as Fathanic /ɛ ɔ/ almost always correspond perfectly to instances of /ea̯ wa/ in Bronic. The most notable phonetic difference, however, is that Fathan features notable vowel reduction in unstressed syllables, which is nearly absent in Bronic.
Moamatemposisy is closer to Fathanic (except for the lack of syncope) than standard Bronic, but has the "intermediate stage" /wɔ/ for Bronic /wa/ and Fathanic /ɔ/, and fully merges /o u/ into the latter. Bronic unstressed /e/ also shifts to /i/ if surrounded by non-front vowels (cf. the city it takes its name from: Br. Moamatempony [mwamatemˈpunʲ], Fath. Mŏmϑempuń [mɔnθemˈpuɲ], Moam. Mwåmahimpuñ [mwɔmahimˈpuɲ]).
Brono-Fathanic, unlike most other Samaidulic languages, inflects nouns (cf. the uninflected nouns of Qualdomelic), but only in the plural indefinite. There are two series of articles, marking a definite singular and a "universal" plural (usually translated as "all"); the indefinite plural is formed with the use of suffixes (historically the Proto-Samaidulic plural articles, cf. -ty, -iea, -hine with Qualdomelic tăjț, tajγ, ing), and the definite singular articles mark the definite plural when used together with this suffix:
- ibory "sea, a sea" – tea ibory "the sea" – ibority "seas" – tea ibority "the seas" – te ibory "all the seas" –
- bilo "tree, a tree" – ta bilo "the tree" – bilotea "trees" – ta bilotea "the trees" – te bilo "all the trees"
- fendra "day, a day" – vy fendra "the day" – fendrahine "days" – vy fendrahine "the days" – ire fendra "all the days"
Note that articles are repeated before all elements in a noun phrase, e.g. ta koresy ta ôhany "the red apple", te ibory te sigeloa "all the calm seas".
Possessed nouns in Brono-Fathanic are marked by a following postposition which varies according to the gender and number of the possessed noun. The masculine singular form is ke, the feminine and neuter singular one is kea, while the one used for all plurals is keisy.
Some nouns, on the other hand, have a completely different possessed form and never use the possessive particle. The most common examples are kaimoa "son" and kamine "daughter", which have the possessed forms eimoa "son of..." and emine "daughter of...".
Modern Brono-Fathanic has two number systems, with a main duodecimal one borrowed from Chlouvānem which, unlike in its western neighbor Qualdomelic, is supplemented by the native decimal one, which is however strictly limited in scope (rarely used for enumerating further than 3010).
Numbers from 1 to ᘔ～1010 are the same in both systems; higher numbers are built with native roots in the decimal system (e.g. 1110 oranasa, cf. Quald. urănțọr, 1310 oranatoary), and with Chlouvānem roots for Ɛ and the dozens in the duodecimal one (Ɛ vedega < Chl. vælden; 1112 mamesa). Unlike Qualdomelic, where the original 10010 (from PSm *klābrod) does not have a numeral value anymore - meaning "a lot of" instead - in Brono-Fathanic that root now serves as the word for 10012, but compound dozenal hundreds use the Chlouvānem root -nihega.
As for types of numerals distinguished, Brono-Fathanic has cardinals, ordinals (all analytic except for 1st (and 2nd in Fathanic), with only ½ having a separate root), and distributives (all analytic, formed by reduplicating the numeral). The apparent irregularity in the Bronic distributive form for 2 is not, diachronically, an irregularity: the cardinal form was the original ordinal form (Proto-Samaidulic *nwejeno, cf. Quald. năjen), which displaced the original cardinal (PSm *nadgo, cf. the distributive nago nago and Quald. nad) in all but a few dialects; Fathanic still has the *nadgo reflex as the cardinal (naŋ, c.f. ordinal nŏń, distr. naŋŋaŋ), even if in colloquial speech the Bronic-influenced use of nŏń as cardinal may be found.
|0||0||adra||(soaka adra)||(adra adra)|
|2||2||noany|| soaka noany
|3||3||toary||soaka toary||toary toary|
|4||4||goaty||soaka + CARD.||CARD. + CARD.|
|Ɛ||11|| (base 10): oranasa|
(base 12): vedega
|10||12|| (base 10): oranoany|
(base 12): mame
|11||13|| (base 10): oranatoary|
(base 12): mamesa
|12||14|| (base 10): oranagoaty|
(base 12): mamenoany
|13||15|| (base 10): oranabotra|
(base 12): mametoary
|... (further numbers only given in base 12)|
|20||24||noanimame||soaka + CARD.||CARD. + CARD.|
Note that the ᘔth dozen is expressed not with the root orana but with the borrowed root tônda, not used by itself (< Chl. tålda).
The dozenal hundreds are:
- 200 (28810) noaninihega
- 300 (43210) toarinihega
- 400 (57610) goatinihega
- 500 (72010) botranihega
- 600 (86410) teakanihega
- 700 (100810) sitinihega
- 800 (115210) nodenihega
- 900 (129610) kobanihega
- ᘔ00 (144010) tôndanihega
- Ɛ00 (158410) vedegihega.
All other numbers are simple juxtapositions, written as separate words, e.g. 10112 trabo sa, 17912 trabo sitimamekoba, 8ᘔ5 nodenihega tôndamamebotra, etc.
Higher numbers still follow the Chlouvānem system: 1.00012 is tigada; 1.00.00012 is a raitra; 1.00.00.00012 a gagaraitra; 1.00.00.00.00012 a taikaotre (or simply trabo gagaraitra), and 1.00.00.00.00.000 a gagataikaotre (or mame tigada gagaraitra).
Brono-Fathanic is one of the main Imuniguro-Xenic languages, that is, those with a high number of Chlouvānem loans with regular sound correspondences and using Chlouvānem roots and words for building new words. This table shows the sound correspondences between Chlouvānem and Imuniguro-Xenic standard Bronic and Fathanic; Moamatemposisy is not included as it, existing virtually only in diglossia with Chlouvānem itself, is more prone to have speakers directly importing the Chlouvānem term with the same pronunciation:
(early religious loans)
(early religious loans)
ni (before consonants)
|p, ph||p|| p|
|t, th||t|| t|
|ṭ, ṭh, c, ch||tr||č|
|k, kh||k|| k|
|d, dh||d|| d|
|ḍ, ḍh, j, jh||dr||ž|
|g, gh||k|| k|
∅ (as part of -Vs direct case endings)
∅ (as part of -Vs direct case endings)
|ṣ, š|| si
o (before consonants)
|i, į, ī|| i
|u, ų, ū||o||u|
|e, ę, ē||e||e|
|a, ą, ā||a|| a|
vŏ (vā sequences)
Chlouvānem clusters not permitted in Bronic or Fathanic (virtually all except for mC and nC; rC is however permitted in Fathanic. Cy clusters do not exist in native words, but are permitted in Imuniguro-Xenic ones) are broken by echoing the preceding vowel, or e in the first syllable. Non-long final vowels are virtually always dropped in Fathanic. Some examples of Imuniguro-Xenic vocabulary; the first term after the arrow is Bronic, the second is Fathanic:
- yunyalīlta → yonyalilita, yuńaliliϑ (Yunyalīlta)
- lillamurḍhyā → lilamorodya, lilamordya (Lillamurḍhyā)
- lārvājuṣa → laroadrusia, larvŏžuš (Yunyalīlti temple)
- līvas → giva, ŋiva (apartment)
- ṣarivāṇa → siarivana, šarivan (State)
- haloe → hagoe (name, signature), haŋŏy (signature)
- juṃšañāña → drugsianiany, žuŋšańań (diocese)
- ṣramāṇa → siramana, širaman (province)
- maišildāryai → maysigdariay, mayšiŋdaryay (exhibition grounds) (pl. tantum in Chl., sing. in Bronic and Fath.)
- kamelšītah → kamegsita, kameŋšiϑa (hall)
- jānilšeidah → dranigsieyda, žaniŋšeyð (legion)
- dhurvālāṇa → duroagana, durvŏŋan (police)
- pahēšhānī → pahesihany, pahešihańi (Liturgical College)
→ See Chlouvānem calendar for a description of the units of time named here.
The modern Brono-Fathanic calendar, as well as the whole time reckoning system in Brono and Fathan, is essentially the same as the Chlouvānem one.
The fourteen months (asena) of the year are (in Bronic):
- mantapanavy (Māltapārṇāvi)
- kanampata (Kanamiprātas)
- pandragasy (Pāṇḍalañši)
- kanammaiga (Kanamimaila)
- mokasena (Murkāsena)
- bosipata (Būṃṣprātas)
- gayaneatra (Laliāñaiṭa)
- baosasena (Brausāsena)
- maigahera (Mailaheirah)
- nayayame (Ñariāyāmyah)
- baiveavamy (Bhaivyāvammi)
- igameasena (Īlāmyasena)
- heaviyasena (Hælvyāsena)
- tramirada (Camirādhās)
Of all Chlouvānem lunar day names, only six are in use in current Bronic (excluding its most formal styles, which use all of them), namely the six full rest days. The two lunar phases are called trigeyotai (chlærlīltāvi) and gintrinyai (līleñchlæriāvi). All other day names are formed by a possessive construction, literally meaning "Xth day of [lunar phase]", for example trigeyotai ke sama = first day of Trigeyotai = in formal Bronic yeatrarasiny (< Chl. yeicarašña).
The six named days are:
- moana (6th day of Trigeyotai), in formal Br. moanageage (Chl. månaleilē);
- yonea (12th day of Trigeyotai), in formal Br. yoneageage (Chl. yūnaleilē);
- keyaonené (17th day of Trigeyotai) (Chl. kælyaunænǣh);
- yase (6th day of Gintrinyai), in formal Br. yasegeage (Chl. lyāšeleilē);
- agana (12th day of Gintrinyai), in formal Br. aganageage (Chl. alanaleilē);
- yeatrapené (17th day of Gintrinyai) (Chl. yeicapænǣh).
Fathanic uses the same units (čiŋiritav and ŋiŋačaerav for the lunar phases and mŏnanaeŋ, yunaeŋ, kaeŋiyŏnae, ŋiyašinaeŋ, aŋanaeŋ, and yaečapenae for the six days named above), while Moamatemposisy uses all names, typically in their unadapted Chlouvānem form due to the diglossic nature of the area's speech.
Subdivisions of time
The main divisions of time are:
|English||Bronic||Fathanic||Equivalent to||rough Earthly approximation|
|Year||sireameka||širaemikh||418 Calemerian days||609.6 Earth days|
|Day||fendra||fež||2812 (3210) hours||~35 hours|
|Hour||karana||karen|| 3 noanimamayo
6012 (7210) raiga
|~65 min ~37 sec|
|group of "minutes"||noanimamayo||naŋmamyu||2012 (2410) raiga||~21 min ~52 sec|
|"Minute"||raiga||rayŋ||(base unit)||~54.6805 sec|
|"Second"||namisô||namšo||1/4012 (1/4810) raiga||~1.8986 sec|
|1/12 of a "second"||(namisô keta) soakomame||(namšo ke) sŏkumam||1/1012 (1/1210) namisô||~0.1582 sec|
|1/144 of a "second"||(namisô keta) soakotrabo||(namšo ke) sŏkučab||1/10012 (1/14410) namisô||~0.0131 sec|
|1/1728 of a "second"||(namisô keta) soakotigada||(namšo ke) sŏkućiŋda||1/100012 (1/172810) namisô||~1.0987 ms|
All Brono-Fathanic speaking territories lie in time zone LIL−2 (AKA Bronic Time, Brono-Fathanic Time, or, in the Inquisition, Måmatempuñīh Time), that is, two hours behind the reference meridian of Līlasuṃghāṇa, capital of the Inquisition. In the Cerian/Western standard, this time zone is noted as CER+10:53′40″10 - about 10¾ hours ahead of the Western reference meridian of Mánébodin, capital of Ceria.
- Censuses of Brono and Fathan list Bronic and Fathanic as separate languages, but those of the Inquisition don't. Because of this, there is no reliable count of Moamatemposisy speakers, which are therefore counted with Bronic, as that is the officially taught standard in Hivampaida.
- Brono-Fathanic speakers in the upper Hŏrlaš valley have always been mostly limited to some riverside towns closer to Fathan; the valley has historically been mostly Fargulyn-speaking, and even the Bronic annexation did not bring much Bronic settlement. Today various Fargulyn languages (all of them of the Karaskyr branch) are the rural vernaculars, while Chlouvānem is the urban one, even if Standard Bronic is a compulsory school subject in the whole of Hivampaida, including those areas.