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|Date||Mar 2014, revived Feb 2018|
|Region||Central Márusúturon (Qualdomailor)|
|Native speakers||40,000,000 (3874 (642410) /2312)|
|Writing system||Qualdomelic script|
|Official language in||Qualdomailor|
The Qualdomelic language (natively toj cwaldeumẹlj [tɔɪ̯ kwaɫdɛʊ̯ˈmɛʎ] or, in full, toj cwaldeumẹlj toj γrămaț [- tɔɪ̯ ɣɾəˈmats]) is a language spoken on the planet of Calémere, native language of virtually all people in Qualdomailor (Qua.: Cwaldewmăjlor), a country in central Márusúturon, where it is the only nationwide official language, and also by some minority in the northwestern Chlouvānem Inquisition (the country Qualdomailor shares half of its land border with), far western Brono and Ylvostydh (the other two neighboring countries on land), as well as in Leñ-ṱef, Ebed-dowa, Oempras (all three divided from Qualdomailor by the Western Sea (in Qua. ivulit căd ittungaq), as well as some diaspora communities in other parts of the former Kaiṣamā (notably in Nerekton), in Greater Skyrdagor, and also in the West.
There are about 40 million native Qualdomelic speakers, the vast majority in Qualdomailor.
It belongs to the Samaidulic language family (Qua.: tăjț samăjdul tăjț γrămaț), more specifically to the Western Samaidulic languages - it is thus distantly related to another major language of the area, the Eastern Samaidulic Brono-Fathanic.
As the language of a people - the Qualdomelics (Qua. cwaldewmẹljăd) - situated in a vital bottleneck of commerce between the Eastern and Western parts of central-northern Márusúturon, many words from it have entered languages of neighboring peoples, and an older form of Qualdomelic was a lingua franca in a vast area of the continent. In the next centuries, its importance on the continent began to sharply fall, mostly due to the rise of the empire of Greater Skyrdagor to the northeast and the conquest of most lands to the south of Qualdomailor — where Qualdomelic was the lingua franca — by the Chlouvānem from the southeast. Qualdomelic still influenced both languages, with often loanwords from Chlouvānem to Skyrdagor and vice versa showing signs of being borrowed through the means of Qualdomelic first. Still, Qualdomelic itself absorbed lots of loanwords, especially religious terminology and modern-day concepts from Chlouvānem, starting from the Qualdomelics' conversion to the Yunyalīlti religion.
After a long period where its international importance was overshadowed by the far greater reach of Chlouvānem and Skyrdagor, the Qualdomelic language is now getting a revival in abroad learning, aided by the less strict visa policies and better human rights record for foreigners in Qualdomailor when compared to the Chlouvānem Inquisition, so that the country has become an obligatory destination for most Westerners interested in Eastern Calemerian culture, lifestyle, and sciences, as well as life in the environmental-friendliest country on Calémere.
Qualdomelic is a revived version of what I consider my first ever "serious" conlang (that is, not a relex), which I created in March 2014 - along with my first conworld sketch I used the name Calémere for - and was called Valdimelic (Hvaldeimήḷta in the orthography I used back then) - conworld-wise, it was Chlouvānem but about fifteen versions before the current one. While, after four years, I can safely say that in my original Valdimelic there were many too naïf elements and a bit of kitchen-sinkyness here and there, in the end there was something in its sound I liked and therefore, in February 2018, I decided to "revive" it (even if apart from a few lexical items it is, grammar-wise, a totally different language) and use it to replace saKalurilut, a long-standing language in my conworld but which was too much of a Kalaallisut giblang to be justified after all those years. Its place in Calémere and a few words are thus taken from saKalurilut. As far as aesthetics are concerned, I replaced many of the too much Greek-looking words, as well as ēta and ōmega (but I kept gamma for /ɣ/) of the original Valdimelic, as well as those ideas that still survive in some way in Chlouvānem, with an aesthetic mostly inspired by Romanian, with hints of Irish, Yoruba (mainly ẹ and ọ), and that beautiful Māori wh.
|Communist Republic of Qualdomailor|
iă njăwțarnẹdarficu niă nnăaqappartut căiši Cwaldeumăjlor
Anthem: The Song of Xixac
(Xixac căd nix)
|Recognised regional languages||Chlouvānem (South)|
|Ethnic groups ((386ᘔ (641810) census))||
81,5% Qualdomelic (cwaldewmẹljăd)|
17% Chlouvānem (țẹnwhanem)
96% Yunyalīlti (junjăliltărfic)|
|Government||Single-party presidential republic|
• General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party
|Răjultiq Mittuc jamhni Whăngeă|
• Unification under the King of Cănțe Inarviut
• Establishment of the Communist Republic
• 386ᘔ (641810) census
|Gini (3871 (642110))||
low · 1st
|HDI (3872 (642210))||
very high · 2nd
|Currency||Inquisitorial Yaltan (CHY)|
LIL−3 Qualdomelic Time|
|Drives on the||left|
Qualdomailor (natively Cwaldewmăjlor [kwaɫdɛʊ̯ˈməɪ̯lor]), officially the Communist Republic of Qualdomailor (iă nJăwțarnẹdarficu niă nNăaqappartut căiši Cwaldeumăjlor [iə̯ ˌnjəʊ̯tsarˌnɛdarˈfiku niə̯ nːəaˌqapparˈtut kəˈiʃɪ kwaɫdɛʊ̯ˈməɪ̯lor]), is a country in central Márusúturon, a continent of Calémere. It borders, clockwise from the north, Ylvostydh, Brono, and the Chlouvānem Inquisition; its western borders are maritime, on the Skyrdegan Inner Sea, more precisely the two inlets called Western Sea (ivulit căd ittungaq, a.k.a. High Ivulit in Chlouvānem sources) and (its southernmost part) Southern Passage Gulf (ciswulit căd allațeă sa nănngiup, a.k.a. Little Ivulit), which divide it from the countries of Leñ-ṱef, Ebed-dowa, and Oempras. Most of its current borders are mountainous, with the country's highest peak, Mount Šuvăṛuc (păsjănngul Šuvăṛuc or nărja Šuvăṛuc; Chl.: šūlābdeyān ga ñaryāh), on the Chlouvānem border and very close to the tripoint with Brono, being 3.ᘔƐ2 pā (675810 = about 7021.5 m) high.
Qualdomailor lies almost entirely between latitudes 30° and 39°N, and mostly has a mediterranean climate; its southernmost point is just about one mile south of the 30th parallel north. The country may be divided, thanks to its various mountain chains, in three distinct zones: the Arănngallaq plain, along the Vălțẹšp river, which lies in the central-northern part of the country and is its most densely populated part; the long but narrow western coast; and the central highlands, which are river basins that ultimately all drain into the western coast through two major rivers - the Qasivănnẹq in the central part and the Ọrăisărpiq in the far south - that cut through the mountains in impressive canyon systems.
The two largest cities, Cănțe Inarviut ("City of the East", the capital), and Arvallivăt ("Red Castle"), lie in the Arănngallaq plain.
Qualdomailor, today, is a linguistically and religiously homogeneous country, with 96% of its inhabitants being religiously Yunyalīlti. Historically predominantly inhabited by the Qualdomelics, in the half century since the Kaiṣamā era there has been a steady influx of Chlouvānem people, so that 81.5% of its population is Qualdomelic, 17% Chlouvānem, and the remaining 1.5% of other ethnic backgrounds. Qualdomelic is the only nationwide official language - Chlouvānem is only official in the four southern regions, but it is widely spoken as a L2 also by native Qualdomelics due to its status as lingua franca of the Eastern bloc and sacred language of the Yunyalīlta. At the last census in 6418 (six years ago), the population amounted to 39,838,427 people; according to more recent estimates, it has grown to slightly more than 40 million people.
Qualdomailor is written in its own, alphabetic script (called ta Whaldewmẹlje sa šowsẹ), which is a derivative of an older form of the Skyrdegan script, a script it retains a large degree of mutual intelligibility with, despite a few differences through further simplifications the Skyrdegan script underwent and a different printing and typesetting style (the Qualdomelic script is characterized by more curved lines).
Qualdomelic orthography is morphophonemic and, to some extent, etymological. In the following table, only the most common, non-mutated spelling for each phoneme is given.
|Nasals||m m||n n||ng ŋ|
|ṛ ɽ||lj ʎ|
|Semivowels||j j||w w|
Notable instances of allophony:
- /r/ is [ɾ] after consonants (e.g. γrămaț "language" [ɣɾəˈmats]);
- /l/ is [ɫ] before consonants (e.g. mălpa "room" [ˈməɫpa]) and geminate /ll/ is [ɬː] (e.g. Arvallivăt [arˈvaɬːivət]).
Note that the Chlouvānem phoneme /ɴ̆/ l is typically adapted in Qualdomelic as /q/ word-initially and as /ŋ/ otherwise; however, in many Yunyalīlti religious words it is adapted as /l/.
|High||i i||u u|
|High-mid||e e||ă ə||o o|
|Low-mid||ẹ ɛ||ọ ɔ|
Diphthongs are typically categorized depending on their first element:
- a-: /aɪ̯ aʊ̯/ aj aw
- ɛ-: /ɛɪ̯ ɛʊ̯ ɛə̯/ ej ew eă
- ɔ-: /ɔɪ̯ ɔʊ̯ ɔə̯/ oj ow oă
- ə-: /əɪ̯ əʊ̯/ ăj ăw
- i-: /iə̯/ iă
- u-: /uə̯/ uă
Hiatuses are usually permitted - see e.g. căiši "N/M.PL/F.PL of" /kəˈiʃi/, nănngiup "passage" /nəŋːiˈup/.
Stress is phonemic and unmarked in the orthography. The most common position is on the penultimate (e.g. vẹfnăro "sleep" /vɛʊ̯ˈnəro/; cwalăš "apple" /ˈkwaləʃ/), but words ending in stops or affricates are usually stressed on the last syllable (e.g. γrămaț "language" /ɣrəˈmats/, ivulit "sea" /ivuˈlit/).
Compound stress is usually on the last element, but if the last element is stressed on the first syllable and the preceding element is stressed on the last, then the last syllable of the penultimate element is stressed - as in the toponym Arvallivăt /arˈvallivət/ from arvan /arˈvan/ "red" and livăt /ˈlivət/ "castle" (the latter among the few common words ending in a stop which are not stressed on the last syllable).
There are two mutations (căṛăwhăro /kəɽəˈfəro/) that influence the initial consonant, or the initial absence of a consonant, of a Qualdomelic word in the same noun phrase when after certain other words: the softening mutation (iă njențejbu niă găṛăwhăro) and the hardening mutation (iă nuzwhăbjoăbu niă găṛăwhăro).
The softening mutation has the following effects:
- p t k q → f s ch γ
- b d g → v z γ
- s z → h
- f → ∅ (orth. fh)
- v cw → w (orth. wh)
- h → ăh-
- ț x → s z
- (in internal saṃdhi only) C-V → CːV
The hardening mutation has the following effects:
- p t k → b d g
- ț → x
- b d g → mm nn nng
- s z → z ṛ (the latter orth. ṛz)
- f → pf (if orth. wh → phw)
- v → nwh /ŋw/
- h → q (orth. qh)
- j → nj
- initial vowel → n-
Words that trigger the softening mutation are marked by a following ʰ (e.g. the feminine singular definite article taʰ), while those that trigger the hardening one are marked by a following ⁿ (e.g. the neuter singular definite article iăⁿ). As "mutation" - căṛăwhăro is a neuter noun, in the names of both mutations we may clearly see how e.g. underlying iăⁿ uzwhăbjoăb-uⁿ iăⁿ căṛăwhăro becomes iă nuzwhăbjoăbu niă găṛăwhăro.
For the internal saṃdhi softening mutation Cʰ-V → CːV, a good example is the word năaqappartut "republic", composed of nă-aqapʰ-artut (literally "large decision organization").
Qualdomelic nouns are uninflected, but number is among the information encoded by the article. There are four articles for each noun class: a singular, a plural, a "universal" article (translated with "all" in examples), and a "partitive" article (translated with "some" in examples). Their forms (and triggered mutations) vary:
- luăchwhjen /lu(ə̯)jen/ "book, a book" – toj luăchwhjen "the book" – tăjț luăchwhjen "the books" – toc luăchwhjen "all the books" – ăso luăchwhjen "some books"
- biăm /biə̯m/ "tree, a tree" – ta viăm "the tree" – tajγ biăm "the trees" – tănc biăm "all the trees" – ăši viăm "some trees"
- fendur /ˈfendur/ "day, a day" – iă pfendur "the day" – ing fendur "the days" – iră pfendur "all the days" – ăju pfendur "some days"
Note that articles are repeated before all elements in a noun phrase, e.g. ta whalăš ta arvan "the red apple", toc tiăda toc țigulic "all the calm mornings".
Possessed nouns are marked by a following postposition which varies according to the gender and number of the possessed noun. The masculine singular form is căd, the feminine singular one is ceda, while the one used for neuters and all plurals is căiši. This does not apply when the possessor is coincident with a third person pronoun, in which case there is a special suffix to use (see table below).
Some nouns, on the other hand, have a completely different possessed form and never use the possessive particle. The most common examples are camiuq "son" and camẹnă "daughter", which have the possessed forms jamwhaʰ "son of..." and jamhniʰ "daughter of...".
|1SG||-ur||dẹljur "my house"|
|2SG||-ed||ronuqed "your sword"|
|3SG||-(j)e||fẹctăse "his/her window"|
|1PL incl.||-uăre||γăljẹuăre "our cat"|
|1PL excl.||-erel||whejnraerel "our city"|
|2PL||-ăjde||luăchwhjenăjde "your book"|
|3PL||-ăjm||mălpaăjm "their room"|
Modern Qualdomelic has a duodecimal number system because of Chlouvānem influence, which completely replaced the earlier, decimal one: only the roots from 1 to Ɛ, optionally 1012, and the old number 10010 (qọlbră, which nowadays is not a numeral anymore, but simply a noun meaning "a lot of", "a large quantity") survive. However, most numerals are hybrids of native roots (for the units) and Chlouvānem ones (for the dozens and other powers of 12).
As for types of numerals distinguished, Qualdomelic has cardinals, ordinals (analytic from Ɛ on; they double as fractionaries, with only ½ having a separate root), and distributives (analytic, formed by reduplication). Numbers from 1 to 5 also have adverbial numerals (once, twice, three times...).
|0||0||axar||(săga axar)||(axar axar)||—|
|8||8||naz -eⁿ||nazenupsi||naze nnaz|
|ᘔ||10||urăn ʰ||urănupsi||urăn urăn|
|săga urănțọr||urănțọr urănțọr|
|săga mamej||mamej mamej|
|1Ɛ||23||urănțọr-u-mamej||săga urănțọr-u-mamej||urănțọr urănțọr-u-mamej||—|
|20||24||naxamamej||săga naxamamej||naxamamej naxamamej|
The roots axar (< ajrā), vẹngdeng (< vælden), and mamej (< māmei) in the table above are of clear Chlouvānem origin. The forms urănțọr and mamej are preferred to vẹngdeng and urănad, but the latter two can still be found sometimes.
The other dozens are:
- 30 (3610) călẹțemamej
- 40 (4810) iwhăšamamej
- 50 (6010) buțemamej
- 60 (7210) tọjoămamej
- 70 (8410) sețengmamej
- 80 (9610) nazengmamej
- 90 (10810) kọwhamamej
- ᘔ0 (12010) urăngmamej
- Ɛ0 (13210) vẹngdemamej
- and 100 (14410) nichẹng.
Further numbers are simple juxtapositions, written as separate words, e.g. 10112 nichẹng sọr, 17912 nichẹng kow-u-sețengmamej, 20012 nad nichẹng, 8ᘔ5 naze nnichẹng but-u-urăngmamej, etc.
Higher numbers still follow the Chlouvānem system: 1.00012 is tingda; 1.00.00012 is a rajț; 1.00.00.00012 a qangărajț; 1.00.00.00.00012 a tăjskawț (or simply nichẹng qangărajț), and 1.00.00.00.00.000 a qangtăjskawț (or mamej tingda qangărajț).
Qualdomelic is one of the main Imuniguro-Xenic languages, that is, those with a high number of Chlouvānem loans with regular sound correspondences (save for, in stress-timed Qualdomelic and Kuyugwazian, sporadic unstressed vowel reduction) and using Chlouvānem roots and words for building new words. This table shows the sound correspondences between Chlouvānem and Imuniguro-Xenic Qualdomelic:
(early religious loans)
|t, th, ṭ, ṭh||t|
|d, dh, ḍ, ḍh||d|
∅ (as part of -Vs direct case endings)
∅ (as part of -Vh direct case endings)
ṛ (before a retroflex consonant)
|i, į, ī||i|
|u, ų, ū||u|
|e, ę, ē||e|
ă (after a long vowel)
|a, ą, ā||a|
ă (after a long vowel, and often when connecting two parts of a compound word; word-finally in -ah endings)
∅ (as part of -as endings)
ăj (before or after a long vowel)
ăw (before or after a long vowel)
Note that Chlouvānem short vowels apart from a usually fall word-finally; note that word-final a is not reduced to ă after a long vowel. Some examples of Imuniguro-Xenic vocabulary:
- yunyalīlta → junjălilta (Yunyalīlta)
- lillamurḍhyā → lilamuṛdjá (Lillamurḍhyā)
- lārvājuṣa → larwaxuša (Yunyalīlti temple)
- līvas → qiw (apartment)
- ṣarivāṇa → šariwana, rare alt. šarăwana (State)
- haloe (name) → hangoă (signature)
- juṃšañāña → xungšanjanja (diocese)
- ṣramāṇa → šăramana (province)
- maišildāryai → majšildarjăj (exhibition grounds) (pl. tantum in Chl., sing. in Quald.)
- kamelšītah → kamengšită (hall)
- jānilšeidah → xaningšejdă (legion)
- dhurvālāṇa → durwangana (police)
- pahēšhānī → pachešchaní (Liturgical College)
→ See also: Chlouvānem calendar
The modern Qualdomelic calendar, as well as time reckoning, is essentially the same as the Chlouvānem one.
The fourteen months (asenă) of the year are:
- mangdaparnaj (Māltapārṇāvi)
- canămpraț (Kanamiprātas)
- pandăngaš (Pāṇḍalañši)
- canămmaj (Kanamimaila)
- muqqase (Murkāsena)
- bušpraț (Būṃṣprātas)
- qangjan (Lalyāñaiṭa)
- brawsase (Brausāsena)
- chejra (Mailaheirah)
- ajamja (Ñariāyāmyah)
- băjvavăm (Bhaivyāvammi)
- ilamjase (Īlāmyasena)
- hẹngvjase (Hælvyāsena)
- țamirada (Camirādhās)
The main divisions of time are:
|English||Qualdomelic||Equivalent to||rough Earthly approximation|
|Year||šlăwhelẹc||418 Calemerian days||609.6 Earth days|
|Day||fendur||2812 (3210) hours||~35 hours|
6012 (7210) răng
|~65 min ~37 sec|
|group of "minutes"||naxamamăljo||2012 (2410) răng||~21 min ~52 sec|
|"Minute"||răng||(base unit)||~54.6805 sec|
|"Second"||namišoă||1/4012 (1/4810) răng||~1.8986 sec|
|1/12 of a "second"||(namišoă ceda) săgămamej||1/1012 (1/1210) namišoă||~0.1582 sec|
|1/144 of a "second"||(namišoă ceda) săgănichẹng||1/10012 (1/14410) namišoă||~0.0131 sec|
|1/1728 of a "second"||(namišoă ceda) săgătingda||1/100012 (1/172810) namišoă||~1.0987 ms|
The whole territory of Qualdomailor lies in time zone LIL−3 (AKA Qualdomelic Time), that is, three hours behind the reference meridian of Līlasuṃghāṇa, capital of the Inquisition. In the Cerian/Western standard, this time zone is noted as CER+9:53′40″10 - about 9¾ hours ahead of the Western reference meridian of Mánébodin, capital of Ceria.
- Chlouvānem and a few minority languages are co-official in some regions.
- Then still spelled "Kalémere".
- The final stretch of the Ọrăisărpiq river (in Chl. Årayīsarpīka ga maita), after the canyons, also marks a small section of the border between Qualdomailor and the Chlouvānem Inquisition.
- Mutated wh represents /w/, but the same digraph represents /f/ when occurring in roots, e.g. in whădoț [fəˈdots] "to see".