I Kronurum

From Linguifex
Jump to: navigation, search


Middle I Kronurum
"that which is spoken"
IKronurum.png
Pronunciation /ˈʔi ˈkɾo̞.nu.ɾum/
Created by Nicolás Straccia
Setting Yrḳuti conworlding project
Spoken natively in The Seven Marks of Ifarka and some exclaves under their influence
Language family
Northern Languages
  • Middle I Kronurum
Early forms:
Proto-Northern
  • [...]
    • Ancient IK
      • Old IK
        • Early Middle I Kronurum
          • Middle I Kronurum
Writing system Latin, Gothic, native
ISO 639-3 qkm

The language known as I Kronurum is a conlang being created and developed by Nicolás Straccia since 2013. It is part of the Yrḳuti conworlding project.


Background


The language known as I Kronurum (IK) is a part of the Northern Languages linguistic family, which populates the northern region of the central continent.

Notwithstanding the several subgroups that have split from this branch at different stages, this Central Branch of the family has been studied as a continuity in which four main stages can be identified:

· Ancient I Kronurum (AIK),
· Old I Kronurum (OIK),
· Middle I Kronurum (MIK; together with Early-MIK, EMIK) and
· Modern I Kronurum (MoIK; together with Early-MoIK, EMoIK).

The developmental stage presented in this article is that of Middle I Kronurum (MIK). At this stage, a group of OIK speakers has already moved westwards from the AIK speaker's cultural Urheimat, which was located in the plains in the northern region of the central continent. MIK is thus the main variety spoken in the region nearby and at the shores of the northern sea.


The endonym of this region is Ifarka (/ʔi.ˈfɑɾ.kɐ/), which is translated as "The Land". It is divided at the top level in seven administrative provinces, called Marks or "defended regions" (Igódánafáreþ /ʔi.ˈgu̜.dɑi̯.nɐ.ˌfɑi̯.ɾe̞θ/), which hold periodical meetings regarding whichever matters would affect the generality of the Hold.

i southmark (south-west) i-Étrir /ʔi.ˈʔei̯.tɾiɾ/ „the standing“, southern mark; “Southmark”
ii westmark i-Jókláran /ʔi.ˈju̜.klai̯.ɾɐn/ “the fjords”, western mark; “Westermark”, “Fjordmark”
ii.a northern-westmark i-Dehráleþ /ʔi.ˈde̞.hɾai̯.le̞θ/ “the cliffed”, northern shoreside of Mark i-Jókláran.

The name sounds like “i-Dehláreþ”, which would mean “Bigflower”, and some would refer to it like that as a compliment or display of local pride.

ii.b southern-westmark i-Árháfr /ʔi.ˈʔɑi̯ɾ.hɑi̯.fɾ̩/ “the shorebend”, southern shoreside of Mark i-Jókláran
iii northern-eastmark i-Fóþrhir /ʔi.ˈfu̜.θɾ̩.hiɾ/ "the ridge", northeastern mark; “Ridgemark”
iv southern-eastmark i-Branárlåjn /ʔi.ˈb̥ɾɑ.nɐi̯ɾ.ˌlɑi̯n/ “longbend valley”, higher valley of the great river
v valleybend mark i-Þistelåjn /ʔi.ˈθis.te̞.lɑi̯n/ “mouth/gape valley”, lower valley of the great river
vi longshore mark i-Branháfrjók /ʔi.ˈb̥ɾɑn.hai̯.ˌfɾju̜k/ “the long beach shore(line)"
vii islemark i-Elugrujifjórd /je̞.ˈlu.gɾu.ji.fju̜ɾd̥/ “the grabbed/conquered port”, metonymic name for the whole Islemark


Grammar

In a nutshell:

OSV

A/N

Pro-drop

[...]

PHONOLOGY

Vowels

Vowel inventory

Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
Close
Blank vowel trapezoid.svg
i
u
(ʊ)
(ɘ)
(ɛ)
(ɐ)
(a)
ɑ
Near‑close
Close‑mid
Mid
Open‑mid
Near‑open
Open

Vowel allophony

· /ɑ/ becomes /ɐ/ in unstressed syllables and /a/ in word medial unstressed syllables.

· /e̞/ becomes /ɘ/ in unstressed syllables and /ɛ/ in word medial unstressed syllables.

Umlaut and diphthongs by umlaut

In the course from Old Ikronurum to Middle Ikronurum the OIK long vowels suffered a process of diphthongization which replaced their phonemic length contrast distinction. Since there is a certain, albeit small, change in the quality of the vowels as compared with their short counterparts (lowered vowels appear to be heightened -normalized- as part of the diphthong), these are called "diphthongs by umlaut".

Evolution of the OIK long vowels through to the MIK diphthong:

OIK EMIK MIK
⟨ā⟩ /ɑː/ ⟨ā⟩ /ɑə̯/ ⟨á⟩ /ɑi̯/~[ai̯]~[ɐi̯]
⟨ē⟩ /eː/ ⟨ē⟩ /eɪ̯/ ⟨é⟩ /ei̯/~[ɘi̯]
⟨ī⟩ /ɪː/ ⟨ī⟩ /ɪi̯/ ⟨í⟩ /ei̯/~[ɛi̯]
⟨ō⟩ /oː/ ⟨ō⟩ /oʊ̯/ ⟨ó⟩ /u̹/~[ʊ]

Other diphtongs

⟨i.o⟩ → /io̯/~/jo/(N/R)
⟨oj⟩ → /o̞j/~/oi̯/
⟨ój⟩ → /u̜j/~/ui̯/ E.g. "fish" strójr /ˈstɾu̜.jɾ̩/1, "fishy" strójrin /ˈstɾuj.ɾin/ [ˈstɾui̯.ɾin]

1 the conservative pronunciation of strójr ranges between /ˈstɾu̜.jɾ̩/ and [ˈstɾu̹.ɟɾ̩]; a less conservative pronunciation is [ˈstɾu̹ɪ̯ɾ], which has regularized the diphthong and coalesced the word into a single syllable.

Consonants

Consonant inventory

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Plosive p b t d k g ʔ
Nasal m n [ɲ] [ŋ]
Trill r
Tap or flap ɾ
Fricative [β] f θ ð s ʃ x [ɣ] h
Lateral fric. [ɬ]
Approximant w j
Lateral app. l

Onset mutations

Mutation grade
0 1 2
p- /p/ f- /f/ f- /f/
b- /b/~/β/ ƕ- /hw/ p- /p/
t- /t/ þ- /θ/ þ- /θ/
d- /d/ ð- /ð/ þ- /θ/
þ- /θ/ þ- /θ/ d- /d/
ð- /ð/ þ- /θ/ þ- /θ/
k- /k/ h- /h/~/χ/ g- /g/~/ɣ/
g- /g/~/ɣ/ h- /h/~/χ/ g- /g/~/ɣ/
m- /m/ mw- /mʷ/ mw- /mʷ/~/w/
n- /n/ ñ- /ɲ/ ng- /ŋ/
l- /l/ lh- /ɬ/ lh- /ɬ/
s- /s/ ś- /ʃ/ ś- /ʃ/
w- /w/ ƕ- /hw/~/hv/ w- /w/
j- /j/ ś- /ʃ/ lh- /ɬ/
h- /h/~/χ/ h- /h/~/χ/ h- /h/~/χ/
f- /f/ p- /p/ p- /p/

Onset mutations posit a great challenge for the diachronic analysis of I Kronurum. As the previous stages of the language get better and better documented, scientific speculation gives way to scientific fact.

Given the data available and the currently valid synchronic analysis, they are presented for pedagogical ends as conforming a continuum of mutation grades from 0 to 2. The 0 degree of mutation is that of the onset consonant as it appears in the citation form of the root (nominative, unmarked). A first and second degree of mutation is perceived as being triggered by the prepositions governing the genitive and the accusative cases: the preposition ‹ó› governs the genitive (GEN) and 'triggers' the first degree of mutation. The preposition ‹tró› governs the accusative (ACC) and 'triggers' the second degree of mutation. Thus the mutations of ‹k› /k/, ‹h› /h/ and ‹g› /g/, are considered part of a continuum as in the example below.

Eg. kramo {crow:nom}, ó hramen {gen crow-gen}, tró gramo {acc crow:acc}

Phonotaxis

Syllable structure

The structure of the longest possible syllable is (C)(C)(C)nu(C)(S), where the nucleus nu must be either a vowel or a syllabic [R] or [N]. In coda position, a cluster can end only with a continuant (S), typically either a nasal, a rhotic, or an /s/.

Sandhi

These are some situations where sandhi rules apply. Generalized rules to follow.

Sandhi Example
-/ren/-/rin/ → -/relin/, -/ro/-/rion/ → -/rolion/ ash-coloured, grey agoróśigrelin {agor-ó-śigren-rin} → {agor-ó-śigrelin}
-/u̜.j/- → -/ui̯/- fish strójr /ˈstɾu̜.jɾ̩/ ; fish (pl.) strójran /ˈstɾui̯.ɾɐn/
-/m/·/b/- → -/mb̥/- small animal som breja /ˈso̞m.ˌb̥ɾe̞.jɐ/
/bl/- → -/b̥l/ blód /ˈb̥lu̹d̥/
-/Vg/·/l/- → -/Vg̊l/- portion, part, section abágli / ˈʔɑ.bai̯.g̊li /
-/ɾ/·/d/-, -/l/·/d/- → -/ɾ.d̥/-, -/l.d̥/- _ balda /ˈbɑl.d̥ɐ/
-/d/ → -/d̥/ flax ljód /ˈlju̹d̥/
-/ɾ/·/ð/- → -/ɾ.d/- _ larða **/ˈlɑɾ.ðɐ/ → /ˈlɑɾ.dɐ/
-/t/·/n/- → -/d/- In the case of the attenuative infix ‹t›, e.g.:

to work, to labour hénur /ˈhei̯.nuɾ/ → to do chores hé·t·nur > hédur /ˈhei̯.duɾ/

-n-t- → -nd̥- won-tró-ƕartagra → wondróƕarta [ˈwo̞n.d̥ɾu̹.ˌhʷɐɾ.tɐ]
/lu/-/wa/- → /ˈlu.ʔa/- to strike, to hit waŕtur /ˈwɑr.tuɾ/ → to beat lu·waŕtur > luaŕtur /ˈlu.ʔar.tuɾ/
/θVθ/→/θVt/ <jóneþóþanen>→<jóneþótanen>
-/θ/·/k/- → -/θː/- noþþánur (< noþ-kánur)
-/ɾ/·/r/- → -/r/- ar-ŕó /ˈʔɑɾ/+/ˈru̹/ → aŕó /ʔɑ.ˈru̹/ emptily (empty-ADV)
larnnirin → larnirin -nn- → -n- when ADJZ is added (word is longer)
-/_.ris/-/ris/- → -/_rissis/ lexicalized+DAT-DAT

[dafríra-rírahiŕis]-ris → [dafríra-rírahiŕissis]

-/_.ris/-/rum/- → -/_rissum/ lexicalized+DAT-DET

[dafríra-rírahiŕis]-rum → [dafríra-rírahiŕisum]

-/rin/-/rum/ → -/rinnum/ -ADJZ-DET

Allophony

Middle I·K has /g/ surfacing as:

1) [g̊] before consonants in word-medial morpheme boundaries*,

2) [ɣ] intervocalically and in codas in word-medial position,

3) [x~χ] at word-final coda**, and

4) [g] elsewhere (which is practically in onsets, word initial or elsewhere -when not intervocallic-).

* a fortition which also happens to /d/ and /b/ in the same environments ** a -/g/•/h/- word medial morpheme boundary will generally collapse to [χ]

MORPHOLOGY

Nominal morphology

Nouns are marked for case, number and definiteness. The marking of the nouns happens according to the following hierarchy:

preposition 0 1 2 3 4
gen, acc noun det pl and nom, gen, acc, dat, inst, loc, all


Grammatical case

• Nominative
The nominative case marks both the subject of an intransitive verb phrase and the agent of a transitive verb phrase. It is morphologically unmarked, recognized as a null-morpheme (written as ∅; glossed: nom). The nominative singular form, being the least marked possible, is the citation form of a noun.
• Accusative
The accusative case marks the object/patient of a transitive verb and marks personal pronouns for reflexivity and the middle voice. It is morphologically marked by the preposition tró (glossed: acc.i); traditionally, a null-morpheme is also marked as suffixed to the noun (∅, glossed: acc.ii), probably by analogy with the genitive marking. The preposition tró triggers a second degree mutation in the following onset (see Onset mutations above).
• Genitive
The genitive case conveys the following meanings: origin (procedence, ablative and partitive genitive), possession (possessive genitive), topicality (“x-gen” → “about x”).
It is morphologically marked by the preposition ó (glossed GEN.I), which presents an excrecent r before a vowel, and the suffix -(e)n (glossed GEN.II); e.g. ór okren /ˈʔu̹ɾ ʔo̞.kɾe̞n/. The preposition ó triggers a first degree mutation in the following onset (see Onset mutations above).
Some older genitive compounds, however, do not display the onset mutation of the second element (which follows the genitive preposition). For instance, the word hissóhéuren /ˈhi.sːu̹.hɘ.ju.ɾe̞n/ should be rendered as **hissókéuren /ˈhi.sːu̹.kɘ.ju.ɾe̞n/ (i.e. "hiddenly worm", crysalis). This is part of the Discrepance on onset mutations controversy.
• Dative
The dative case marks the theme argument of a distransitive verb phrase.
• Instrumental
The instrumental case has two basic functions: a plain instrumental marking for nouns of the inanimate and indefinite genders, and a commitative marking for animate nouns.
• Locative
The locative functions as a general locative and adessive locative. Locative phrases can be concatenated to specify a particular location within a broader location stated before (e.g. "bághirliftó, héuraftó“, "in the grove, by the river"; "tr‘ostaftó, órostenaftó lugraftó", "by him/her, in his/her hand").
• Allative
The allative marks, as a lative case, movement towards something. It can be used as a benefactive marker. With ditransitive verbs like "to inflict“, it marks the object/patient in stead of the accusative marker → «to.inflict {x}-dat upon {Y}-all».


Declension particles and affixes
Case Marker Notes
nom Nominative The nominative case is not marked
gen Genitive ó(r) _-(e)n /ˈʔu̹ɾ/ _-/e̞n/ preposition, suffix Triggers mutation 1. Excrecent r before a vowel: ór okren /ˈʔu̹ɾ ʔo̞.kɾe̞n/
acc Accusative tró /ˈtɾu̹/ preposition Triggers mutation 2
dat Dative -(r)is -/ɾis/ suffix
instr Instrumental/Commitative -(n)ion -/nio̯n/ suffix Inanimate nouns: instrumental. Animate nouns: comitative
loc Locative/Adessive ("with", "by", "at") -(a)ftó -/f.ˈtu̹/ suffix þaneftó /θɐ.nɘf.ˈtu/, “at the house”, “at home”
all Allative -(o)rion -/o̞.ɾio̯n/ suffix þanerion /ˈθɑ.nɘ.ɾio̞n/ "homebound"

Grammatical number

[Here: singular vs. plural vs. collective]


· Plural marking
Grammatical gender Plural form Example
Animate umlaut+-n {´}n ‹´›-/n/ ‹fara› /ˈfɑ.ɾɐ/ → ‹fáran› /ˈfɑi̯.ɾɐn/ (fara-{´}an)
umlaut+-an {´}n ‹´›-/ɐn/
Inanimate umlaut+-ran {´}ran ‹´›-/ɾɐn/ ‹þane› /ˈθɑ.nɘ/ → ‹þáneran› /ˈθɑi̯.nɘ.ɾɐn/ (þane-{´}ran)
umlaut+-eþ {´}eþ ‹´›-/eθ/ ‹baga› /ˈbɑ.gɐ/ → ‹bágeþ› /ˈbɑi̯.geθ/ (baga-{´}eþ)
Indefinite umlaut+-aþ -/ɐθ/

Definiteness

The definiteness of a noun can be marked either with a numeral, stating the quantity of the noun, or by the determiner suffix (det) -rum (See Derivational particles and affixes below).


- When used to mark the subject of a verb in the imperative voice, it serves the function of a vocative marker.


Other forms

· Diminutives
Grammatical gender Diminutive form Example
Animate umlaut+-(e)jar {´}(e)jar ‹´›-/e̞.jɐɾ/ gángrejar›, little dog
preposition ‹som›* /so̞m/ som lugr›, little hand; ‹som breja›, little animal.
Inanimate
umlaut+-þu {´}þu ‹´›-/θu/ bágaþu›, little eye
umlaut+-li {´}li ‹´›-/li/ noþa›, package; ‹nódali›, bag
Indefinite umlaut+-isi {´}(i)si ‹´›-/isi/ iarisi›, sorrow (little emptyness)
· Augmentatives
Grammatical gender Augmentative form Example
Animate -ónr (ó)nr -/u̹.nɾ̩/ gangrónr›, big dog
preposition ‹det›* /de̞t/ det koŕa›, big door; ‹det hlár›, big flower.
Inanimate
-lår lår -/lɑɾ/ faltalår›, big table
Indefinite -(a)śar (a)śar -/a.ʃɐɾ/ grébaśar›, great harm


* The use of the particles ‹det› and ‹som› as diminutive and augmentative particles respectively may not be confused with their use in other forms. For the former, for instance, forms such as "x-ful", "very x, "having x (n.)" or "very x (adj.)", since it is not bound to the word it modifies, neither as an affix+word lexicalization (as in ‹detjalatti›, expected, from ‹det› -"with, having"- and ‹i-alatti› -"expectation"-); nor as an affix+word construction (as in ‹det-hjol›, with walls, walled, from ‹det› -"with, having"- and ‹hjol› -wall-).


Many of this both forms, diminutives and augmentatives, have been lexicalized, mainly in derivation of nouns of inanimate and indeterminate grammatical gender.

Personal pronouns

Personal pronouns are declined for grammatical case in the same manner as nouns. For the instrumental (inst), locative (loc) and allative (all) cases in the third person, the declined form is that of the third person indefinite (3s.ind and 3p.ind) for all grammatical genders.

Person Grammatical case
nom gen acc dat inst loc all
Singular 1 ‹angr›
/ˈʔɑŋ.gr̩/
‹ór angren›
/ˈʔu̜ɾ ˈʔɑŋ.gɾɘn/
‹tró angr›
/ˈtɾu̜ ˈʔɑŋ.gr̩/
‹angris›
/ˈʔɑŋ.gɾis/
‹angrion›
/ˈʔɑŋ.gɾio̯n/
‹angraftó›
/ʔɑŋ.gɾɐf.ˈtu̹/
‹angorion›
/ˈʔɑŋ.go̞.ɾio̯n/
2 ‹setr›
/ˈse̞.tr̩/
‹ó þetren›
/ʔu̹ ˈθe̞.tɾɘn/
‹tró śetr›
/ˈtɾu̜ ˈʃe̞.tr̩/
‹setris›
/ˈse̞.tɾis/
‹setrion›
/ˈse̞.tɾio̯n/
‹setraftó›
/se̞.tɾɐf.ˈtu̹/
‹setorion›
/ˈse̞.to̞.ɾio̯n/
3 anim ‹osta›
/ˈʔo̞s.tɐ/
‹ór osten›
/ʔu̹ɾ ˈʔo̞s.tɘn/
‹tró osta›
/ˈtɾu̜ ˈʔo̞s.tɐ/
‹ostris›
/ˈʔo̞s.tɾis/
‹estrion›
/ˈʔe̞s.tɾio̯n/
‹estraftó›
/ʔe̞s.tɐf.ˈtu̹/
‹estarion›
/ˈʔe̞s.tɐ.ɾio̯n/
inan ‹masta›
/ˈmɑs.tɐ/
‹ó mwasten›
/ʔu̹ ˈmʷɑs.tɘn/
‹tró wasta›
/ˈtɾu̜ ˈwɑs.tɐ/
‹mastris›
/ˈmɑs.tɾis/
ind ‹esta›
/ˈʔe̞s.tɐ/
‹ór esten›
/ʔu̹ɾ ˈʔe̞s.tɘn/
‹tró esta›
/ˈtɾu̜ ˈʔe̞s.tɐ/
‹estris›
/ˈʔe̞s.tɾis/
Plural 1 ‹óstr›
/ˈʔu̜s.tɾ̩/
‹ór óstren›
/ˈʔu̜ɾ ˈʔu̜s.tɾən/
‹tró óstr›
/ˈtɾu̜ ˈʔu̜s.tɾ̩/
‹óstris›
/ˈʔu̜s.tɾis/
‹óstrion›
/ˈʔu̜s.tɾio̯n/
‹óstraftó›
/ʔu̜s.tɾɐf.ˈtu̜/
‹óstrorion›
/ʔu̜s.tɾo̞.ɾio̯n/
2 ‹hagr›
/ˈhɑ.gɾ̩/
‹ó kagren›
/ˈʔu̜ ˈkɑ.gɾɘn/
‹tró gagr›
/ˈtɾu̜ ˈgɑ.gɾ̩/
‹hagris›
/ˈhɑ.gɾis/
‹hagrion›
/ˈhɑ.gɾio̯n/
‹hagraftó›
/hɑ.gɾɐf.ˈtu/
‹hagorion›
/ˈhɑ.gɾo̞.ɾio̯n/
3 anim ‹jóka›
/ˈju̜.kɐ/
‹ó jóbken›
/ˈʔu̜ ˈju̜β.kɘn/
‹tró ñóka›
/ˈtɾu̜ ˈɲu̜.kɐ/
‹jókris›
/ˈju̜.kɾis/
‹narkrion›
/ˈnɑɾ.kɾio̯n/
‹narkaftó›
/nɑɾ.kɐf.ˈtu/
‹narkorion›
/ˈnɑɾ.ko̞.ɾio̯n/
inan ‹méka›
/ˈmei̯.kɐ/
‹ó mwéken›
/ˈʔu̜ ˈmʷei̯.kɘn/
‹tró wéka›
/ˈtɾu̜ ˈwei̯.kɐ/
‹mékris›
/ˈmei̯.kɾis/
ind ‹narka›
/ˈnɑɾ.kɐ/
‹ó nwarken›
/ˈʔu̜ ˈnʷɑɾ.kɘn/
‹tró ñarka›
/ˈtɾu̜ ˈɲɑɾ.kɐ/
‹narkris›
/ˈnɑɾ.kɾis/

Adjectives

Adjectives precede the noun they modify. They agree in case and number with the modified noun.

Relatives: comparative and equative

· a is x-er than b (comparative)

In the case of comparative constructions, deviating from the norm, the modified noun precedes the "adjective", i.e. the comparative construction (adjective plus compared-to noun or nominal phrase). The compared-to term is affixed with the comparative suffix comp.than -(a)los (from losi, adj. “(to be) the other”). The adjective, in turn, is affixed with the comparative suffix comp.more de- (from det, adj. “with x, x-ful, having x (n.); very x (adj.)”).

· comp -(a)los -/ɐlos/ comparative suffix. From losi, adj. “(to be) other”
· det /ˈde̞t/ adjective particle, (adj.) with x, x-ful, having x (n.); very x

The structure of the comparative construction is:

[X] (is) er-[α] [Y]-than
(theme, what is being described) more-[adjective] [compared-to-noun]-than
[noun:nom] de-[adjective] [compared-to-noun]-(a)los

For example:

[X] (is) er-[α] [Y]-than
[wolf/dog] er-[small] [house]-than
[gangr] de-[som] [þane]-los
gangr de-som þanelos
"a dog is smaller than a house"

· a is as x as b (equative)

Perifrastic workaround: “as for A and B, their respective x-ity is equal”

Relative forms use the following affixes:

comp.more de- /de̞/- compared-by adjective from det, adj. “with x, x-ful, having x (n.); very x (adj.)”
comp.than -(a)los -/ɐ.lo̞s/ compared-to noun from losi, adj. “(to be) the other”
comp.as -wes -/we̞s/ equative from wesse,adj. „(to be) equal“

Superlatives

Superlative forms are marked as follows:

Grammatical gender Superlative form Example
Animate -(n)aur (n)aur -/nau̯ɾ/ knegaur›, the tallest (anim.)
preposition ‹dette› /de̞.tːɘ/ (dette < det-det)
Inanimate preposition ‹dette› /de̞.tːɘ/ (dette < det-det)
Indefinite -jós jós -/ju̜s/ netreriñós›, the most orderly (ind.)


For example, when used as the superlative of a certain group or list:

[X] (is) er-[α] [Y]-than , but est [α] [Z] (dat dem. pronoun)
[house] er-[big] [wolf/dog]-than but est [big] [mountain] (dem.distal.dat.pl “to them”)
[þane] de-[dag] [gangr]-los harhaŕa dette [dag] [fóþr] (tréþraris)
þane de-dag gangralos, harhaŕa dette dag fóþr tréþraris
"a house is bigger than a dog, but a mountain is tallest (in respect) to them"

Colour terms

Ikronurum has two classes of colour terms: a closed set, including basic colour terms and standardized derived colour terms, and an open set, including further ad hoc colour terms, which can be derived as needed.

All derived colour terms, both standardized and ad hoc, are constructed as genitive compounds composed of the word "colour" (agoro /ˈʔɑ.go̞ɾo̞/) and the noun which carries the colour one wants to refer to; this compounds are then marked with the adjectivizer suffix adjz -rin.

The verb used to refer to something being "of x colour“ is nontur /ˈno̞n.tuɾ/, "to.take.with, to.take.along, to.bring.with, to.bring.along; to.carry" (used also with flavours and some attributes to convey the meaning of "having X“, e.g. "having strength", or "being X“, e.g. "being sweet").

Basic colour terms
alta ˈʔɑl.tɐ n in green
áþi ˈʔɑi̯.θi adj q black
us ˈʔus adj q white
mól ˈmu̹l adj q blue, azure
þír ˈθei̯ɾ adj q brown, dun
...
Derived colour terms (agor-ó-X.en-rin, colour-of-X.of-adjz)
agoróśigrelin ˈʔɑ.go̞.ɾʊ.ˌʃi.gɾɘ.lin adj q ash-coloured, grey (agor-ó-śigren-rin) → (agor-ó-śigrelin)
agorókenallin ˈʔɑ.go̞.ɾʊ.ˌkɘ.nɐ.lːin adj q blood-coloured, red (agor-ó-kennan-rin) → (agor-ó-kenallin)
agoróparkarin ˈʔɑ.go̞.ɾʊ.ˌpɑɾ.kɐ.ɾin adj q earth-coloured, brownish black (agor-ó-parkan-rin)

Verbal morphology

Verbs are marked for person, number, tense, aspect, mood and voice. The marking of the verbs happens according to the following hierarchy:

preposition -1 0 1 2
Passive voice marker Aspect marker prefix verb Conjugation affix for person, number and mood Aspect marker suffix

Verb conjugation paradigms

There are five basic verb conjugation paradigms or classes:

i -nur,
ii -tur,
ii.a -dur,
iii -rur,
iv -jur,
v -kur.

The following table displays a collapsed view of the morphemic structures involved, grouping identical elements together:

For detailed tables of each paradigm see here.

Verbal aspect markers

Almost all verbal aspect markers are prefixed to the root. Only the attenuative aspect marker atten is infixed between the root and the declension suffix (in this cases, sandhi rules may apply to it).

aspect marker theme Notes
consonant vowel
Continuous cont Ø- (unmarked) ‹Ikronurum (angr) kronur›, I’m speaking Ikronurum
Gnomic gnom [conjugated verb] ini /ˈʔi.ni/ (postposition) ‹Ikronurum (angr) kronur ini›, I speak Ikronurum
Perfect perf j(ó)- /ju̹.ˈ/- /ˈjV/- Vowel theme: ‹j-›; consonant theme: ‹jó-›
Imperfect imp ke- /ke̞.ˈ/- /ke̞.ˈʔ/- Vowel theme: there’s a glottal stop before the root-vowel.
Intensive1 int1 ja(g)- /jɑˈɣ/- Movement: to.walk → to.parade
Intensive2 int2 a(l)- /ʔɑ.ˈ/ /ʔɑ.ˈlV/ Abstract: to.wish → to.hope
Attenuative atten -(e)t- -/ɘt/- -/t/- (infix) to.water → to.sprinkle(with water)


Particles and affixes

Function Marker Notes
pvm Passive voice marker þar /ˈθɑɾ/ particle/preposition
aux Auxiliar particle gar /ˈgɑɾ/ particle/preposition "composite" verbs: „gesagt haben“, «gar ekronuri»
hort Hortative particle heŕan /ˈhe̞.rɐn/ particle/preposition [HORT]+[pers.pron.+DAT]+[verb]
neg Negation of an action ren /ˈre̞n/ particle/preposition (it won’t x, it doesn’t x)
caus Causative -a- -/ɑ/- affix Derives a causative verb from a noun after the template [noun.root]-caus-[verb.declension]

nimr water; nimrajur to.make.moist,to.water (a plant,etc)

Numerals and quantifiers

Numerals

The I Kronurum numeral system is decimal (base ten).

The word “number”, ihámunna /ʔi.ˈhɑi̯.mu.nːɐ/, is the nominalized present participle form of the verb hamur, “to count”.

Cardinals
Morphology < > //
harna ˈhɑɾ.nɐ no, none; 0, cero (from harnara, nothing)
jog ˈjo̞x 01, one
nor ˈno̞ɾ 02, two
ana, an- ˈʔɑ.nɐ 03, three
ittag, itt- ˈʔi.tːɐx 04, four
lur ˈluɾ 05, five
fit ˈfit 06, six
éþi, éþ- ˈʔei̯.θil 07, seven
heltr, helt- ˈhe̞l.tɾ̩ 08, eight
usto, ust- ˈʔus.to̞ 09, nine
hór ˈhu̜ɾ 10, ten
hór-jog hórjog ˈhu̜ɾ.jo̞x 11, eleven
hór-nor hórnor ˈhu̜ɾ.no̞ɾ 12, twelve
hór-ana hórana ˈhu̜.ɾa.nɐ 13, thirteen
hór-ittag hórittag ˈhu̜.ɾi.tːɐx 14, fourteen
hór-lur hólur ˈhu̜ɾ.luɾ 15, fifteen
hór-fit hórfit ˈhu̜ɾ.fit 16, sixteen
hór-éþil hóréþil ˈhu̜ɾ.ei̯.θil 17, seventeen
hór-heltr hórjoltr ˈhu̜ɾ.jo̞l.tɾ̩ 18, eighteen
hór-usto hórjosto ˈhu̜ɾ.jo̞s.to̞ 19, nineteen
jog-nor-r jor ˈjo̞ɾ 20, twenty
jog-ór-jor jogór-jor ˈjo̞.gu̹.ɾio̯ɾ 21, twenty-one (one-and-twenty)
nor-ór-jor norór-jor ˈno̞.ɾu̹.ɾio̯ɾ 22, twenty-two (two-and-twenty)
an-ór-jor anór-jor ˈʔɑ.nu̹.ɾio̯ɾ 23, twenty-three (three-and-twenty)
itt-ór-jor ittór-jor ˈʔi.tːu̹.ɾio̯ɾ 24, twenty-four (four-and-twenty)
lur-ór-jor lurór-jor ˈlu.ɾu̹.ɾio̯ɾ 25, twenty-five (five-and-twenty)
fit-ór-jor fitór-jor ˈfi.tu̹.ɾio̯ɾ 26, twenty-six (six-and-twenty)
éþ-ór-jor éþór-jor ˈʔei̯.θu̹.ɾio̯ɾ 27, twenty-seven (seven-and-twenty)
helt-ór-jor heltór-jor ˈhe̞l.tu̹.ɾio̯ɾ 28, twenty-eight (eight-and-twenty)
ust-ór-jor ustór-jor ˈʔus.tu̹.ɾio̯ɾ 29, twenty-nine (nine-and-twenty)
jog-ana-r jonr ˈjo̞.nɾ̩ 30, thirty
jog-ór-jonr jogór-jonr ˈjo.gu̹ɾ.ˌjo̞.nɾ̩ 31, thirty-one (one-and-thirty)
jog-ittag-r jottar ˈjo̞.tːɐɾ 40, forty
jog-ór-jottar jogór-jottar ˈjo̞.gu̹ɾ.ˌjo̞.tːɐɾ 41, forty-one (one-and-fourty)
jog-lur-r jolur ˈjo̞.luɾ 50, fifty
jog-ór-jolur jogór-jolur ˈjo̞.gu̹ɾ.ˌjo̞.luɾ 51, fifty-one (one-and-fifty)
jog-fit-r jofir ˈjo̞.fiɾ 60, sixty
jog-ór-jofir jogór-jofir ˈjo̞.gu̹ɾ.ˌjo̞.fiɾ 61, sixty-one (one-and-sixty)
jog-éþi-r joþr ˈjo̞.θɾ̩ 70, seventy
jog-ór-joþr jogór-joþr ˈjo̞.gu̹ɾ.ˌjo̞.θɾ̩ 71, seventy-one (one-and-seventy)
jog-helt-r joltr ˈjo̞l.tɾ̩ 80, eighty
jog-ór-joltr jogór-joltr ˈjo̞.gu̹ɾ.ˌjo̞l.tɾ̩ 81, eighty-one (one-and-eighty)
jog-ust-r jostr ˈjo̞s.tɾ̩ 90, ninety
jog-ór-jostr jogór-jostr ˈjo̞.gu̹ɾ.ˌjo̞s.tɾ̩ 91, ninety-one (one-and-ninety)
Ordinals

The ordinal form of a number is formed with the ordinal suffix -(j)os (derived from the superlative affix -jós), with the form -os after plosives and fricatives and -jos after nasals and rhotics.

Morphology < > //
harna ˈhɑɾ.nɐ no, none; 0, cero (from harnara, nothing)
jogos ˈjo̞.go̞s 01, first
norjos ˈno̞ɾ.jo̞s 02, second
anjos ˈʔɑ.ɲo̞s 03, third
ittos ˈʔi.tːo̞s 04, fourth
lurjos ˈluɾ.jo̞s 05, fifth
fitos ˈfi.to̞s 06, sixth
éþos ˈʔei̯.θo̞s 07, seventh
heltos ˈhe̞l.to̞s 08, eighth
ustos ˈʔus.to̞s 09, ninth
hórjos ˈhu̜ɾ.jo̞s 10, tenth
hór-jog-(j)os hórjogos ˈhu̜ɾ.jo̞.go̞s 11, eleventh
hór-nor-(j)os hórnorjos ˈhu̜ɾ.no̞ɾ.jo̞s 12, twelveth
hór-an-(j)os hóranjos ˈhu̜.ɾa.ɲo̞s 13, thirteenth
hór-itt-(j)os hórittos ˈhu̜.ɾi.tːo̞s 14, fourteenth
hór-lur-(j)os hólurjos ˈhu̜ɾ.luɾ.jo̞s 15, fifteenth
hór-fit-(j)os hórfitos ˈhu̜ɾ.fi.to̞s 16, sixteenth
hór-éþ-(j)os hóréþos ˈhu̜ɾ.ei̯.θo̞s 17, seventeenth
hór-jolt-(j)os hórjoltos ˈhu̜ɾ.jo̞l.to̞s 18, eighteenth
hór-jost-(j)os hórjostos ˈhu̜ɾ.jo̞s.to̞s 19, nineteenth
jor-(j)os jorjos ˈjo̞ɾ.jo̞s 20, twentieth
jog-ór-jor-(j)os jogór-jorjos ˈjo.gu̹.ɾio̯s 21, twenty-first
nor-ór-jor-(j)os norór-jorjos ˈno̞.ɾu̹.ɾio̯s 22, twenty-second
an-ór-jor-(j)os anór-jorjos ˈʔɑ.nu̹.ɾio̯s 23, twenty-third
itt-ór-jor-(j)os ittór-jorjos ˈʔi.tːu̹.ɾio̯s 24, twenty-fourth
lur-ór-jor-(j)os lurór-jorjos ˈlu.ɾu̹.ɾio̯s 25, twenty-fifth
fit-ór-jor-(j)os fitór-jorjos ˈfi.tu̹.ɾio̯s 26, twenty-sixth
éþ-ór-jor-(j)os éþór-jorjos ˈʔei̯.θu̹.ɾio̯s 27, twenty-seventh
helt-ór-jor-(j)os heltór-jorjos ˈhe̞l.tu̹.ɾio̯s 28, twenty-eighth
ust-ór-jor-(j)os ustór-jorjos ˈʔus.tu̹.ɾio̯s 29, twenty-ninth
jonar-(j)os jonarjos ˈjo̞.na.ɾio̯s 30, thirtieth
jog-ór-jonar-(j)os jogór-jonarjos ˈjo.gu̹ɾ.ˌjo̞.na.ɾio̯s 31, thirty-first
jottag-(j)os jottagos ˈjo̞.tːa.go̯s 40, fortieth
jog-ór-jottag-(j)os jogór-jottagos ˈjo.gu̹ɾ.ˌjo̞.tːa.go̯s 41, forty-first
jolur-(j)os jolurjos ˈjo̞.lu.ɾio̯s 50, fiftieth
jog-ór-jolur-(j)os jogór-jolurjos ˈjo.gu̹ɾ.ˌjo̞.lu.ɾio̯s 51, fifty-first
jofit-(j)os jofitos ˈjo̞.fi.to̯s 60, sixtieth
jog-ór-jofit-(j)os jogór-jofitos ˈjo.gu̹ɾ.ˌjo̞.fi.to̯s 61, sixty-first
joþ-(j)os joþos ˈjo̞.θo̯s 70, seventieth
jog-ór-joþ-(j)os jogór-joþos ˈjo.gu̹ɾ.ˌjo̞.θo̯s 71, seventy-first
jolt-(j)os joltos ˈjo̞l.to̯s 80, eightieth
jog-ór-jolt-(j)os jogór-joltos ˈjo.gu̹ɾ.ˌjo̞l.to̯s 81, eighty-first
jost-(j)os jostos ˈjo̞s.to̞s 90, ninetieth
jog-ór-jost-(j)os jogór-jostos ˈjo.gu̹ɾ.ˌjo̞s.to̞s 91, ninety-first
Multiples

· n-timesnumeral+ADV

“in the manner of something which is n-times”. E.g. jog, one - joguŕó, simple (“in the manner of something which is one time”); nor, two - noruŕó, double; anaŕó, triple; ittaguŕó, quadruple;

· n-timesNLZ+numeral+ADV

“in the manner of something which is n-times”. E.g. jog, one - ijoguŕó, once(“in the manner of something which is one time”); nor, two - inoruŕó, twice; janaŕó, thrice; jittaguŕó, four times; etc.

Quantifiers

Marking hierarchy

Nouns

-1 0 1 2 3 4
case governing particle: gen, acc noun det pl, dim, augm and grammatical case (nom, gen, acc, dat, inst, loc, all), advm

Verbs

-2 -1 0 1 2
passive voice marker particle aspect marker affix: intensive(1,2); imperfect, perfect root aspect marker affix: attenuative conjugation affix for person, number, and mood aspect marker particle

Derivational morphology

· Nominalizer (nmlz)

Derivation of nouns from verbs (deverbal nouns):

nmlz-[verb in the infinitive]

Derivation of nouns from adjectives and past-participles:

nmlz-[adjective/ppl]
dag, big; i-dag, bigness.

Nominalization of past participles When a past participle is nominalized to mean “one or any instance of this deverbal form”, a contraction of the participial suffix happens as follows:

[-nuri → -ni], [-turi → -ti], [-ruri → -ri], [-juri → -ji].

Deverbal adjectives

verb.inf+adjz

Denominal adjectives

- adjz -rin
- “with” (det-)
- “without” (har-)
- verb:
nontur “to.take.with/along, to.bring.with/along; to.carry” → “to.have [noun+ACC]” → “to be [adj]”, e.g.
“to.have strength-acc” → “to be strong”
“to.have sweetness-acc” → “to be sweet”


Derivational particles and affixes


· Grammatical

Function Marker Notes
nmlz Nominalizer i /ˈʔi/ preposition Mostly paired with the determiner suffix ‹-rum›

kronur “I speak” 1s.pres.ind

i kronurum, {i kro-nur-rum}

[NMLZ to.speak-1s.pres.ind-det]

= "was ich spreche", “that what I’m speaking”; speech, language.

det Determiner -rum -/ɾum/ suffix "the x" (instead of "a x")
and Coordinator -ór -/u̹ɾ/ preposition "and"
advm Adverbializer -(u)ŕó -/u.ˈru̹/ suffix "x-ly", "in the maner of x"

turns nouns into adverbs of manner turns verbs of motion in adverbs of manner

adj Adjetivizer -rin -/ɾin/ suffix Forms adjectives of quality. sigr "ash", agor-ó-śigrelin "ash-coloured"

· Lexical and partially grammaticalized lexical forms

Function Marker Notes
pers Associated person -rir -/ɾiɾ/ suffix Forms actor nouns from verbs and nouns; from ríra, “person”

hlajur v. to.make, hlajrir n. maker.

assa n. forge, assarir n. smith.

tool Associated artifact, tool -(e)nar -/ɘnɐɾ/ suffix From nara, “thing, artifact, contraption”

iltur “to.rest” > ilturenar “chair”

place Associated place -fér -/fei̯ɾ/ suffix From féra, “place”.
col Colective noun -hir -/hiɾ/ suffix From hitr, “pack, herd”

sigra “drop” > sigrahir “rain”

Discourse particles


List of discourse particles
Type <> [] Translation Notes
adjective det ˈde̞t with with x, x-ful, having x (n.); very x (adj.)
adjective har ˈhɑɾ without without; no x, not x, un-x, x-less
adverbial feŕ ˈfe̞r thus
adverbial pórhaŕa ˈpʰu̜ɾ.ha.rɐ whenever “each-while”
adverbial ídihaŕa ˈʔei̯.di.ha.rɐ always “all-while”
adverbial sig ˈsix until
adverbial haŕa ˈhɑ.rɐ while When used figuratively: “while x, y” - Order: “while X, Y then[=won] Z
adverbial won ˈwo̞n then
connective ána ˈʔɑi̯.nɐ so, therefore
connective -ór -u̹ɾ and suffix, word connector
connective or word or sentence disjunctor
connective om ˈʔo̞m and/or
connective harhaŕa ˈhɑɾ.ha.rɐ but “not-while”
connective man ˈmɑn so Ger. also; “and” as coordinator of propostitions
connective hurman huɾ.ˈmɑn and so, indeed, ...
connective as ˈʔɑs because (of) +gen
connective nwo ˈnʷo̞ that (hen-won, "this-then") Ger. dass - Used with “I experience (see, hear, etc) that ...”
connective losihiraftó ˈlo̞.si.hi.ɾaf.ˈtu̹ as for the rest, ... From losihirum-aftó, the.rest-loc (losihir’aftó, the det -rum is dropped)
connective/
adverbial
losiŕó lo̞.si.ˈru̹ otherwise adv.m “other-ly, in the manner of the.other”, introduces an option
hortative heŕan ˈhe̞.rɐn let’s ... preposition; [hort]+[pers.pron.+dat]+[verb]
intensifier hur ˈhuɾ indeed intensifier
negation no of a proposition, of a sentence
negation ren ˈre̞n not negation of an action (it won’t x, it doesn’t x, etc)
subord nun ˈnun which, RLTZ2 introduces non-restrictive bound finite relative clauses
subord fror ˈfɾo̞ɾ which, RLTZ1 introduces restrictive bound finite relative clauses
pórja ˈpʰu̜.ɾjɐ whatever “each-any”
og ˈʔo̞x hence

Deictics

Spatial deixis

Temporal deixis

Proper nouns

Proper nouns can have forms which are inconsistent with the current vocabulary. Some of this oddities come from older compounding strategies and words, or are the result of loan translations into Ikronurum. For example, the name Faradur, meaning “horse-son”, is not the word for foal, DURÓPARAN, which is a horse’s son. Likewise the surname Artassarir, meaning “swordsmith, swordmaker”, is not the word for swordsmith, ASSARIRÓARTEN, which is the proper name of the occupation.

Anthroponyms

An Ikronurum name consists minimally of a first name and a surname. First names Surnames are typically either occupational (e.g. “swordmaker”), genitive (e.g. “of Greenwall”) or patronymic (e.g. Dur-Kríhrafr), amongst which the oldest can be found. Each spouse may carry the surname of the other after their own, prefixed with Det-, “with”, while a widow/er may use Har-, “without”.

For example:

Faradur Ór-Altahjol /ˈfɑ.ɾɐ.duɾ ʔu̹ɾ.ˈʔɑl.tɐ.hjo̞l/ "Horse-son of Greenwall"
Énor* Artassarir /ˈʔei̯.no̞ɾ ˈʔɑɾ.ta.sːɐ.ɾiɾ/ "Bear(paw) Swordmaker"
Héurbrok Dur-Kríhrafr /ˈhei̯.uɾ.bɾo̞k duɾ.ˈkɾei̯.ˌhɾɐ.fɾ̩/ "Riverstone son of Eaglewing"
*(Énor < Énorag)
A name with first name, surname and spouse’s surname:

[Énor Ór-Altahjol Har-Artassarir] “Bearpaw of Greenwall, widower of Swordwright”

Older genitive names, like some older genitive compounds, dont suffix the word with -(e)n; for example, the surname “Ór-Altahjol” would become the Middle IK rendering **Ór-Altahjolen, but in this stage of the language a similar form would only be used to indicate actual procedence, regardless of the procedence which birthed the surname in the first place. One could have a “Faradur Ó-pBrankóg, ór Artahjolen”, being “Horse-son of Longmoor, of[=from] Artahjol”.

Nicknames derived from first names follow different regional traditions. While in the southern marks names are typically clipped (e.g. Faradur → Far, Fare, Faru), in the northern marks names tend to be modified by merging of the first and last syllables (e.g. Faradur → Fadu). Islanders generally prefer clippings marked as diminutives (Faradur → Fárejar). Nicknames not derived from first-names but from the individual’s character include a rather wide array of motifs and themes, such as nature (animals, landscape features), auspicious or desirable characteristics (habilities, expertises) and objects associated with such characteristics (“sword” for the cunning, “boat” for the swift, “beam” for the strong), amongst others.

Toponyms

There is a variety of toponymical forms for the names of topological and anthropogenic landmarks, which are used exclusively in the formation of toponymical proper nouns. Though derived from the common nouns, some of the toponymical forms can vary notably.

Groups: A) anthropogenic structures; B) abrupt terrain; C) waterfront; D) plain terrain; E) vegetation and other terrain; F) waterways.

Group Toponymical form
a
hamlet -þåjn -/θɑi̯n/ top. “-ham”, from þánerum, hamlet
town -þåjl -/θɑi̯l/ top. “-ton”, from -þåjnl, in turn from þánelår, town
path -års -/ɑɾs/ top. from arso, path, way; street, road
b
hill -neþ -/nɘθ/ top. from neþo, hill
valley -låjn -/lɑi̯.n/ top. from lánr, valley
cove -lor -/lo̞ɾ/ top. from lora, cavity; nook, cranny; cove, bay
chasm -luþ -/luθ/ top. from luþlor, “deep cavity”, pit, chasm; well
cliff -hråjl -/hɾɑi̯l/ top. from hrál, cliff; out-jutting rock, Sp. farallón
c
sea -jår -/jɑɾ/ top. from jarl, sea
bay -fjór -/fju̜ɾ/ top. from fjór, pond, shallow lake; shallow bay
port -fjórd -/fju̜ɾd̥/ top. port, haven (< fjórþ, fjór-þåjn, fjór-þánerum)
beach -håjf -/hɑi̯f/ top. from háfr, beach, shoreline
shore -jók -/ju̜k/ top. from jóke, border, Ger. Rand; side, coast
d
land -får(k) -/fɑɾk/ top. region, region-name; from farka, earth
field -lól -/lu̹l/ top. from lótli, field
e
forest -bågh -/bɑx/ top. from baghir, forest
grove -båjg -/bɑi̯x/ top. from bághirli, grove
swamp -kóg -/kʰu̹x/ top. from kóg, bog, moor, swamp
f
creek -hel -/he̞l/ top. from héur, creek, river

Demonyms

Syntax

Word order per sentence type

Sentence type Constituent order Constituent marking
Declarative sentences Active sentences Intransitive verbs SV nom-v
Monotransitive verbs OSV acc-nom-v
Ditransitive verbs OTSV acc-dat-nom-v
Passive sentences SOV nom-acc-pvm-v
Interrogative sentences (focus fronting) OQSV acc-q-nom-v
SQOV nom-q-acc-v
TQOSV dat-q-acc-nom-v
VQOS v-q-acc-nom
Imperative sentences OVS acc-v-nom+det


Imperative sentences put the issuée of the command at the end of the sentence and marked as determinate (both common and proper nouns). This counts as a vocative marking of the argument, achieved through conjunct use of determiner marking (det -rum-) and a syntactical alteration of the neutral word order (OVS instead of OSV). Nevertheless, most of the time whenever a proper name is not involved the pronoun is dropped and the sentence consists of the conjugated verb and verbal derivational morphology only.

Lexicon


Citation forms:

· Nouns: nominative singular;

· Adjectives: nominative singular

· Verbs: first person singular present indicative active.

Leipzig-Jakarta list

Some terms which are listed as one entry in the Leipzig-Jakarta list but have more than one distinct term in Ikronurum have become as many entries as needed to accommodate the scope of its vocabulary. For instance, the term “arm/hand” becomes two entries given that there is a lexical distinction between arm and hand. Because of this accommodation to the scope of the Ikronurum lexicon, the list will have more entries than the original hundred, just as it would have needed to be for other languages, such as English.

English I Kronurum
‹› //
ant urna ˈʔuɾ.nɐ
arm nidr ˈni.dɾ̩
hand lugr ˈlu.gɾ̩
ash sigr ˈsi.gɾ̩
back ikanrin ʔi.ˈkɑn.ɾin
big dag ˈdɑx
bird unda ˈʔun.dɐ
to bite (human) þistånur ˈθis.tɑ.nuɾ
to bite (animal) ðanur ˈðɑ.nuɾ
bitter ljur ˈljuɾ
black áþi ˈʔɑi̯.θi
blood henna ˈhe̞.nːɐ
to blow þuntur ˈθun.tuɾ
bone hamr ˈhɑ.mɾ̩
breast boðr ˈbo̞.ðɾ̩
to burn (intransitive) orkjur ˈʔo̞ɾ.kjuɾ
to carry nontur ˈno̞n.tuɾ
child (reciprocal of parent) sente ˈse̞n.tɘ
to come herjonur ˈhe̞.ɾjo̞.nuɾ
to crush/to grind luhestur ˈlu.he̞s.tuɾ
to cry/to weep nasjur ˈnɑ.sjuɾ
to do/to make hlajur ˈhlɑ.juɾ
dog gangr ˈgɑn.gɾ̩
to drink wentur ˈwe̞n.tuɾ
ear náa ˈnɑ.jɐ
to eat nistur ˈnis.tuɾ
egg gaŕa ˈgɑ.rɐ
eye bagra ˈbɑ.gɾɐ
to fall
far sór ˈsu̜ɾ
fire okre ˈʔo̞.kɾɘ
fish strójr ˈstɾu̜.jɾ̩
flesh/meat fegr ˈfe̞.gɾ̩
fly jaŕan ˈjɑ.rɐn
to give hajur ˈhɑ.juɾ
to go arnur ˈʔɑɾ.nuɾ
good sag ˈsɑx
hair (human) vór ˈvu̹ɾ
hard breg ˈbɾe̞x
he/she (3S.AN.NOM) osta ˈʔo̞s.tɐ
it (3S.IN.NOM) masta ˈmɑs.tɐ
him/her (3S.ACC) tró osta ˈtɾu̜ ˈʔo̞s.tɐ
to hear nátur ˈnɑi̯.tur
heavy bro ˈbɾo̞
to hide (intransitive)
to hide (transitive) fráråjur ˈfɾɑi̯.ɾɑ.juɾ
to hit waŕtur ˈwɑr.tuɾ
to beat luaŕtur ˈlu.ʔar.tuɾ
horn ðrófa ˈðɾu̜.fɐ
house þane ˈθɑ.nɘ
I angr ˈʔɑŋ.gr̩
me tró angr ˈtɾu̜ ˈʔɑŋ.gr̩
in (loc) -aftó -ɐf.ˈtu̹
knee þranár ˈθɾɑn.ʔɐi̯ɾ
to know arajur ˈʔɑ.ɾɐ.juɾ
to laugh reþinur ˈre̞.θi.nuɾ
leaf brefa ˈbɾe̞.fɐ
leg þran ˈθɾɑn
foot jona ˈjo.nɐ
liver geś ˈge̞ʃ
long bran ˈbɾɑn
louse géga ˈgei̯.gɐ
mouth (human) þiste ˈθis.te̞
name lok ˈlo̞k
navel hjarma ˈhjɑɾ.mɐ
neck mele ˈme̞.lɘ
new krim ˈkɾim
night hjól ˈhju̜l
nose fróð ˈfɾu̹ð
not (of an action) ren ˈre̞n
old þrór ˈθɾu̜ɾ
one jog ˈjox
rain sigrahir ˈsi.gɾɐ.hiɾ
red agorókenallin ˈʔɑ.go̞.ɾʊ.ˌkɘ.nɐ.lːin
root suma ˈsu.mɐ
rope hjara ˈhjɑ.ɾɐ
to run ekanur ˈʔe̞.ka.nuɾ
salt fora ˈfo̞.ɾɐ
sand bisso ˈbi.sːo̞
to say kronur ˈkɾo̞.nuɾ
to see bagråjur ˈbɑ.gɾɑ.juɾ
shade/shadow wegr ˈwe̞.gɾ̩
skin (human) gród ˈgɾu̹d̥
hide kuŕa ˈkʰu.rɐ
small som ˈso̞m
smoke þóste ˈθu̹s.tɘ
soil farka ˈfɑɾ.kɐ
to stand étrur ˈʔei̯.truɾ
star fár fɑi̯ɾ
stone broka ˈbɾo̞.kɐ
rock ibroke ʔi.ˈbɾo̞.kɘ
to suck fiþinur ˈfi.θi.nuɾ
sweet ónðr ˈʔu̜n.ðɾ̩
tail (animal) sikr ˈsi.kɾ̩
to take (away) tróśórkánur ˈtɾu̜.ʃu̜ɾ.ˌkɑi̯.nuɾ
thick san ˈsɑn
thigh kneg-þran ˈkne̞x.θɾɑn
this (prox. to speaker, NOM) nédor ˈnei̯.do̞ɾ
to tie hjarmåjur ˈhjɑɾ.mɑ.juɾ
tongue silr ˈsi.lɾ̩
tooth taga ˈtʰɑ.gɐ
water nimr ˈni.mɾ̩
what?
who?
wide aða ˈʔɑ.ðɐ
wind þunr ˈθu.nɾ̩
wing hrafr ˈhɾɑ.fɾ̩
wood linda ˈlin.dɐ
yesterday unþróƕarta ˈʔun.θɾu̹.ˌhʷɐɾ.tɐ
you (singular, NOM) setr ˈse̞.tr̩


Orthography

The name of the language, I Kronurum, in one of the native scripts, a gautification and a romanization

Besides the history of the in-world, "native" orthographies of the different historical stages of I Kronurum, there are two transliteration standards: a romanization, and a "gautification" (a variation on Ulfilas' Gothic script).

Orthographies
Consonants
IPA value Latin letter Gothic letter Native orthography Notes
p p 𐍀 - -
b b 𐌱 - -
t t 𐍄 - -
d d 𐌳 - -
k k 𐌺 - -
g g 𐌲 - -
m m 𐌼 - -
n n 𐌽 - -
ɲ ñ, ń, nj 𐌽𐌹 - -
r ŕ, rr 𐍂𐍂 - -
ɾ r 𐍂 - -
f f 𐍆 - -
θ þ 𐌸 - -
ð ð 𐍊 - -
s s 𐍃 - -
ʃ ś 𐌶 - -
h h 𐌷 - -
w w 𐍅 - -
j j 𐌾 - -
l l 𐌻 - -
ɬ lh 𐍁 - -
ƕ 𐍈 - -
Vowels
IPA value Latin letter Gothic letter Native orthography Notes
ɑ a, å 𐌰 - The spelling ‹å› is used for instances of ‹a› which need to be pronounced as /ɑ/ but happen in positions in which the realization would be either /a/ or /ɐ/. For instance, the causative marker caus ‹-a-›, which happens word-medially, would otherwise be pronounced /a/.
ɑi̯~ɐi̯~ai̯ á 𐌰𐌰 - From an early long a vowel; AIK ‹â›, OIK ‹ā› /ɑː/, EMIK ‹ó› /ɑə̯/
i i 𐌹 - -
ei̯~ɛi̯ í 𐌹𐌹 - From an early long i vowel; AIK ‹î› /ɪː/, OIK ‹ī› /ɪː/, EMIK ‹ī› /ɪi̯/
e 𐌴 - -
ei̯~ɘi̯ é 𐌴𐌴 - From an early long o vowel; AIK ‹ê›, OIK ‹ē› /eː/, EMIK ‹é› /eɪ̯/
o 𐍉 - -
ó 𐍉𐍉 - From an early long o vowel; AIK ‹ô› /ɔː/, OIK ‹ō› /oː/, EMIK ‹ó› /oʊ̯/
u u 𐌿 - -


Samples

Sentences

·:𐍉𐍉:𐍀𐌰𐌲𐍂𐌿𐌼𐍉𐍉𐍂𐌽:𐌿𐌽𐌳𐍂𐌿𐌼𐍉𐍉𐍂𐌽:𐍆𐌰𐍂𐍂𐌿𐌼𐌴𐌽:·
‹Ó pagrumórn, undrumórn, faŕumen›
/ˈʔu̜ ˈpɑ.gɾu.mu̜ɾn | ˈʔun.dɾu.mu̜ɾn | ˈfɑ.ru.mɘn/
ó(r) {b→p}aga-rum-ór-(e)n unda-rum-ór-(e)n fara-rum-(e)n
gen tree-det-and-gen bird-det-and-gen horse-det-gen
"of/about the tree, the bird and the horse"
(name of a traditional tale)


Other samples

Dafríra, ibóðr iknegór nonteþini. Tró angr sóraftó jaŕaftó jóherjoneþan. Tró jalíŕihirum ó þetren alastur. Hurman, ána, pórhaŕa tró pórja uŕójubskenis ankjurini, won tró esta angris hajana-ini. Tró śetr órusmarken ehajuri tró istojti finta rengodånere. Nog tró śéðŕó faga detŕó þar jójagrénturan.

 /ˈdɑf.rei̯.ɾɐ ʔi.ˈbu̜.ðɾ̩ ʔi.ˈkne̞.gu̹ɾ ˈno̞n.tɛ.ˌθi.ni/ /ˈtɾu̹ ˈʔɑŋ.gr̩ su̜ɾ.af.ˈtu̹ jɑ.raf.ˈtu̹ ju̜.he̞.ˈɾjo̞.nɛ.ˌθɐn/ /ˈtɾu̹ ˈjɑ.lei̯.ri.hi.ɾum ˈʔu̹ ˈθe̞.tɾɘn ʔɑ.ˈlas.tuɾ/ /huɾ.ˈmɑn ˈʔɑi̯.nɐ ˈpu̜ɾ.ha.rɐ ˈtɾu̹ ˈpu̜.ɾjɐ ˈʔo̞.ru̹.ˌjuβs.ke̞.nis ˈʔɑn.kju.ɾi.ni/ /ˈwo̞n ˈtɾu̹ ˈʔe̞s.tɐ ˈʔɑŋ.gɾis ˈhɑ.ja.nɐ ˈʔi.ni/ /ˈtɾu̹ ˈʃe̞.tr̩ ˈʔu̹.ɾus.maɾ.ke̞n ˈʔe.hɑ.ju.ɾi ˈtɾu̹ ʔi.ˈsto̞j.ti ˈfin.tɐ ˈre̞n ˈgo.dɑ.ne.ɾɘ/ /ˈno̞x ˈtɾu̹ ˈʃei̯.ðɾu̹ ˈfɑ.gɐ ˈde̞t.ru̹ ˈθɑɾ ju̜.jɑ.ˈgɾɛi̯n.tu.ɾɐn/

Lord, high and strong, you who came to me in the far sea, I heed to your desire. So, to the sky-spirit. I asked him for and he gave me. You know a silver offering against death won’t protect him. That’s why yonder tree was thoroughly destroyed.
Alanni

Náŕa angr nédor, nwo setr wonaftógwartan gar jóstosjet, arajur
i-étŕirum ó þetren okrerumaftó alangur
as ór okren nédor tró angr arajti ke·aleinåtrur ini,
man nwo noraftó farkahirumaftó ór i-arajten nwo bréfeþrum jóhlásánur arajur
man won wartaftó tróśenasig étrénu ini

– Dogrili Gogrot

/ˈʔɑ.la.nːi/

/ˈnɑi̯.rɐ ˈʔɑŋ.gr̩ ˈnei̯.do̞ɾ | ˈnʷo̞ ˈse̞.tr̩ wo̞.naf.tu̹.ˈgʷɑɾ.tɐn ˈgɑɾ ju̹.ˈsto̞j.sje̞t | ˈʔɑ.ɾa.juɾ/
/ʔi.ˈei̯t.ri.ɾum ʔu̹ ˈθe̞.tɾe̞n ʔo̞.kɾɛ.ɾu.maf.ˈtu̹ ʔɑ.ˈlɑŋ.guɾ/
/ˈʔɑs ʔu̹ɾ ˈʔo̞.kɾe̞n ˈnei̯.do̞ɾ ˈtɾu̹ ˈʔɑŋ.gr̩ ˈʔɑ.ɾaj.ti ke̞.ʔɑ.ˈlei̯.nɑ.tɾuɾ ˈʔi.ni | /
/ˈmɑn ˈnʷo̞ nei̯.do̞.ɾaf.ˈtu̹ fɑɾ.ka.hi.ɾu.maf.ˈtu̹ ʔu̹ɾ ʔi.ˈʔɑ.ɾɐj.ten ˈnʷo̞ ˈb̥ɾei̯.fe̞.θɾum ju̹.ˈhlɑi̯.sai̯.nuɾ ˈʔɑ.ɾa.juɾ/
/ˈmɑn ˈwo̞n wɑɾ.tɐf.ˈtu̹ tɾu̜.ˈʃe̞.na.six ˈʔei̯.tɾei̯.nu ˈʔi.ni/

/ˈdo̞.ɣɾi.li ˈgo̞.ɣɾo̞t/

Loving

Even though I know you'll be dead when it is the end
I love staying by your fire
Because this fire makes me want to know,
and I know that the leaves of knowledge will bloom in this world
and remain in time forever

– Dogrili Gogrot


Ór antarumen fárarumanóren
Jo’harkroj’anta tró báran bagråjanan, fror jóka pór: tró pro nonttinar jog keanontaran; tró dag nóntta losi kenontaran; tró ñog ríra losi tíruŕó þarkefrenaran. Feŕ antarum tró ídi fárarum kekronaran: “ikanaftórum ór angren þisten wohtarinur, as ja ríra tró báran kearånaran kebagråjur”. Feŕ ídi fárarum tró antarum kekronaran: “tr’óstr janáteþur, antarum; pórhaŕa nédor bagråjuntu, nwo haŕa jog ríra, fror frenara ini, tró ibrohir ór ídin ántanen krojarumion estarion hlajana, won, ídi ánta har ó grojan ó jóbken nontáru; wo’nog, antarum, ikanaftórum ór óstren þístenen wohtarinurtu”. Són tróðréðr gar jónátaran, won, antarum lótrumorion jarnturan.
The Sheep and the Horses
[On a hill,] a sheep that had no wool saw horses, one of them pulling a heavy wagon, one carrying a big load, and one carrying a man quickly. The sheep said to the horses: "My heart pains me, seeing a man driving horses." The horses said: "Listen, sheep, our hearts pain us when we see this: a man, the master, makes the wool of the sheep into a warm garment for himself. And the sheep has no wool." Having heard this, the sheep fled into the plain.
Eþro· de’tru áþi dumarum· iltuŕu alanara ini. Ó osten i-ilttirum har-tró-śena man ó osten bágreþ tró śenasig ésénu ini. Harhaŕa i-kanaftórum ó osten þisten antara ini man de’tró huma som-i-anttitara ini· kan ó osten tarp-ó-págrumeþen agoraþór ialíŕaþór som-i-anttiaþór netrór man harnetrór imannaþór iþinnór jagarnturu ini. Ídi ó osten de’tró istojti man haristojti i-arattirumen hararattirumaftó. Man Eþro won haŕa lósan dumaruman antáru ini alanara ini.
The black fox, Esro, lay asleep. His rest is eternal, [&] his eyes forever shut. But he is awake in his heart and he dreams of the most beautiful things. Behind his eyelids is a theatre of colours and hopes and dreams, of order and chaos, of reason and faith. All of consciousness lies within his unconsciousness, mortal and immortal. So Esro lay asleep, while the other foxes awoke.





  • For some conlangs I wrote up samples for a thread in the Facebook group "Constructed Languages". The task was proposed as a small game: "From all your conlangs, pick one word to represent the language and describe it!":
A verb:
gódånur
/ˈgu̜.dɑ.nuɾ/
gód-å-nur
shield-caus-lemma
"to.cause.to.be.shielded", to protect
A noun:
faltahlajrir
/ˈfɑl.tɐ.ˌhlɑj.ɾiɾ/
falta-hlajrir
table-maker
“table-maker”, carpenter
Something idiomatic: a double kenning
markówartáþan
/ˈmɑɾ.kʊ.ˌwaɾ.tai̯.θɐn/
marka-ó-warta-áþan
metal-gen-time-dark
“metal of the dark time" → "metal of the night", the moon