Pradiul

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Pradiul/Swadesh list
Pradiul
Γtiϝἀρ
Pradiul
Created by IlL
Setting Verse:Tricin
Region Talma
Language family
Lakovic
  • Ashanic
    • Pradiul
Writing system Pradiul script
ISO 639-3

Pradiul (temporary name) is a minority Lakovic language of Talma inspired by Khmer and my (User:IlL's) Germanic conlang Thedish. It is a descendant of Classical Windermere, and it belongs to the Anbirese-Cièdian sprachbund.

Numbers: dån, riat, stiev, smiåχ, miuc, tiaχ, båθ, szep, laj, þiaf, saju, sriuχ

Mariet ri mie Ven Dami = I live in Wen Dămea

Diachronics

a e i o u ü ah eh ih oh uh üh > ia e ie a o io iå y i å u iu

Phonology

Consonants

Labial Dental Alveolar Postalveolar Velar Glottal
hard soft hard soft hard soft hard soft soft hard
Nasal m m mi n ni ņi ɲ ņ ŋ
Stop voiceless p p pi t ti ki c k k ʔ
voiced b b bi d di gi ɟ g g
aspirated φ ph φi phʲ θ th θi thʲ χi ch χ kh
Affricate c ts ci cz czi
Fricative s s si ɕ sz ʂ szi ʃ h h
Resonant v v vi l ɫ li r ɾ ri ɾʲ j j

Palatalization is neutralized for word-final consonants, however they assimilate to the palatalization of the next consonant: dån fniud [danʲ fʲnʲud] 'one day'. The only exception is word-final /v/ which is always [w].

Initial voiceless stops were traditionally not aspirated, but are lightly aspirated now.

Vowels

a/ia e/ie o/io å/iå y/i u/iu /a e o a i u/

å was a different vowel /oə~uə/ in the earliest days of written Pradiul, but has merged with a /a/ for all modern speakers.

Unstressed vowel: /ə/ (spelled a if nonpalatalizing and i if palatalizing)

Stress

Stress is always final, as in Windermere.

Phonotactics

Zero and C are the only permitted word-final codas.

Here is a list (modulo palatalization) by type of cluster (some clusters may be listed more than once):

  • Cl: pl, tl, cl, kl, bl, gl, fl, chl, sl
  • Cr: pr, tr, cr, kr, br, dr, gr, fr, þr, chr, sr
  • Cm: tm, þm, km, chm, sm
  • Cn: fn, kn, chn, sn
  • Cņ: fņ, tņ, þņ, chņ, sņ
  • Cv: tv, þv, kv, chv, gv, sv
  • sC: sp, st, sk, sm, sn, sņ, sl, sr, sv
  • chC: chm, chn, chņ, chl, chr

Voiced stops are not allowed to begin minor syllables in roots. This rule does not apply to proper names.

Script

Morphology

Similar to Talmic languages? Inflected prepositions, etc.

Nouns

Like Modern Windermere, Pradiul has two articles, the definite article fie and the specific article sie (from demonstratives fie 'that' and sie 'this'; cognate to Windermere fi and se with the same meanings).

Noun plurals are different from Windermere and use incopyfixation instead of a fixed affix: knol 'leaf', kalnol 'leaves'. (compare Windermere cnul, pl. imcnul)

Verbs

Verbs display split-ergativity like in Anbirese and Cièdian.

Intransitives

Siåf fie paszå mie skiaþ codun.
go blow DEF wind LOC blow everywhere
The wind is blowing everywhere.
Snakiaþ fie paszå codun.
PSTblow DEF wind everywhere
The wind blew everywhere.

Transitives

Siåf fie chmåp mie kmil.
go DEF people LOC vote
The people are voting.
Tieþ, jin mong plafnane he fie chmåp chos fie nuplakå Bichand!
oh_no, 3SG.M REL PSTelect ERG DEF people as DEF president Bjeheond
Oh no, the people have elected *him* as president of Bjeheond!


Prepositions

Talmic-style inflected prepositions

sza: to

  • szar, szasz, szan, szas, szaf, szac, szang, szaszam, szam

mie: at, in

  • mier, miesz, mien, mies, mief, miec, mieng, miszam, miam