From Linguifex
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Pradiul/Swadesh list
Created byIlL
  • Ashanic
    • Pradiul
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.

Pradiul (temporary name) is a minority Tergetian language of Talma inspired by Khmer and my (User:IlL's) Germanic conlang Thedish. It is a descendant of Classical Naeng, and it belongs to the Anbirese-Ciètian sprachbund.

Numbers: dån, riat, stiev, smiåχ, miuc, tiaχ, båθ, szep, laj, þiaf, saju, sriuχ

Mariet ri mie Ven Dami = I live in Wen Dămea


a e i o u ü ah eh ih oh uh üh > ia e ie a o io iå y i å u iu



Labial Dental Alveolar Postalveolar Velar Glottal
hard soft hard soft hard soft hard soft soft hard
Nasal m m mi n ni ņi ɲ ņ ŋ
Stop voiceless p p pi t ti ki c k k ʔ
voiced b b bi d di gi ɟ g g
aspirated θ θi tʰʲ
Affricate c ts ci cz czi
Fricative f f fi s s si ɕ sz ʂ szi ʃ chi ç ch x h h
Resonant v v vi l ɫ li r ɾ ri ɾʲ j j

Palatalization is neutralized for word-final consonants, however they assimilate to the palatalization of the next consonant: dån fniud [danʲ fʲnʲud] 'one day'. The only exception is word-final /v/ which is always [w].


a/ia e/ie o/io å/iå y/i u/iu /a e o u i u/

å was a different vowel /oə~uə/ in the earliest days of written Pradiul, but has merged with u /u/ for all modern speakers.

Unstressed vowel: /ə/ (spelled a if nonpalatalizing and i if palatalizing)


Stress is always final, as in Windermere.


Zero and C are the only permitted word-final codas.

Here is a list (modulo palatalization) by type of cluster (some clusters may be listed more than once):

  • Cl: pl, tl, cl, kl, bl, gl, fl, chl, sl
  • Cr: pr, tr, cr, kr, br, dr, gr, fr, þr, chr, sr
  • Cm: tm, þm, km, chm, sm
  • Cn: fn, kn, chn, sn
  • Cņ: fņ, tņ, þņ, chņ, sņ
  • Cv: tv, þv, kv, chv, gv, sv
  • sC: sp, st, sk, sm, sn, sņ, sl, sr, sv
  • chC: chm, chn, chņ, chl, chr

Voiced stops are not allowed to begin minor syllables in roots. This rule does not apply to proper names.



Similar to Talmic languages? Inflected prepositions, etc.


Like Modern Windermere, Pradiul has two articles, the definite article fie and the specific article sie (from demonstratives fie 'that' and sie 'this'; cognate to Windermere fi and se with the same meanings).

Noun plurals are different from Windermere and use incopyfixation instead of a fixed affix: knol 'leaf', kalnol 'leaves'. (compare Windermere cnul, pl. imcnul)


Verbs display split-ergativity like in Anbirese and Ciètian.


Siåf fie paszå mie skiaθ codun.
go blow DEF wind LOC blow everywhere
The wind is blowing everywhere.
Snakiaþ fie paszå codun.
PSTblow DEF wind everywhere
The wind blew everywhere.


Siåf fie chmåp mie kmil.
go DEF people LOC vote
The people are voting.
Ties, jin mong plafnane he fie chmåp chos fie nuplakå Bichand!
oh_no, 3SG.M REL PSTelect ERG DEF people as DEF president Bjeheond
Oh no, the people have elected *him* as president of Bjeheond!


Talmic-style inflected prepositions

sza: to

  • szar, szasz, szan, szas, szaf, szac, szang, szaszam, szam

mie: at, in

  • mier, miesz, mien, mies, mief, miec, mieng, miszam, miam