Lakovic languages

From Linguifex
Jump to: navigation, search
Not to be confused with the Lahob languages.

Swadesh lists for the Lakovic languages

Lakovic languages/Sketchbook

Setting Tricin
Originally Talma, Bjeheond and Txapoalli; today worldwide
Linguistic classification: One of Tricin's primary language families
Proto-language: Proto-Lakovic
Western Bjeheondian

The Lakovic languages (/ləˈkoʊvɪk/ lə-KOH-vik; Windermere: fi imbrits Lăcof) are a major Trician language family, originally native to Talma. The family is inspired by Semitic, Mon-Khmer and Austronesian languages.


Lakovic should be huge

Urheimat: Talma

Language with dissimilated reduplicated plurals/verbs

Proto-Ashanic = vaguely Salish grammar

some confusion between derivational affixes and trigger/applicatives in Ashanic

an ergative Lakovic language

a Txapoallian Lakovic language with a possessed classifier system

A tricons Lakovic lang

  • the VN infix i~y
  • umlaut with various suffixes that disappear



Proto-Lakovic phonology

vaguely Proto-Semitic/Algonquian/Georgian


Labial Dental Domed Palatal Velar Uvular Laryngeal
Nasal m /m/ n /n/ ŋ /ŋ/
Plosive voiced b /b/ d /d/ g /ɡ/
voiceless p /p/ t /t/ k /k/ ʔ /ʔ/
Affricate c /t͡s/ ć /t͡ʂ/ č /t͡ʃ/
Fricative s /s/ ś /ʂ/ š /ʃ/ x /x/ H
Resonant w /w/ l /l/ r /r/ y /j/


i u e o ä a

Syllabic ṃ ṇ ŋ ḷ ṛ

There is some disagreement about the vowel ä - it may have been /æ/ or /ə/.


Proto-Lakovic had some long and unanalyzable roots

Words always ended in a vowel, unlike in Proto-Ashanic. (?)

Proto-Lakovic morphology

Root structure

Roots consisted of a sequence of consonants plus an inherent vowel. Schwebeablaut was used, so the vowel could change places. The roots could be of the form

  1. biconsonantal roots alternating between CVC and CCV. Example: sep ~ spe 'to walk'
  2. triconsonantal roots alternating between CCVC and CVCC (and CCCV?). Example: ptsun ~ putsn 'live'

Various prefixes, infixes and suffixes were added to derive words.


Nouns were pluralized by reduplication, as in the Salish languages. e.g.

  • lakof 'person' > *laklakof 'people'
  • ptek 'body' > pteptek 'bodies' (Simplification of clusters in the reduplicant: *teptek occurs in some dialects.)

There was a feminine suffix -is.

Nouns had no morphological case; genitive noun phrases were formed by concatenation.

Ashanic developed a new associative plural suffix -am.


All branches of Lakovic have evidence for the following pronouns:

  • *riH = I
  • *baŋ = we (dual inclusive)
  • *śen = thou (m)
  • *śens = thou (f)
  • *ʔin = he
  • *ʔins = she

Plural pronouns cannot be reconstructed in PLak.

Verbs and adjectives

Verbs inflected for triggers, TAM, pluractionality, and evidentiality. Present-day Lakovic languages preserve these inflections to varying levels.

There was a feminine prefix, wa-.

  • paŋ = destination trigger
  • PLak: iHt = locative trigger

Derivational morphology

  • -s: feminine
    • Source of breathy voice ablaut in Wdm.
  • prefix or infix: non-volitional or passive verbs
    • Ashanic *àr, Wdm. , năr/măr
  • ay = nominalization
  • b- = agentive
    • Wdm. pă- (not productive)
    • Tseer ba-
  • ha- = resultative (passive in Windermere)
  • t- = denominal verbs, causative
    • Wdm. th- (not productive)
  • lä- = verbalizer
  • ʔu- = intensive
    • Wdm. th-u-
  • ya- = adjectivizer; from ya 'with'
    • Wdm. yă-, Tseezh xi-, Häskä yə-
  • ʔ = negative; the opposite or undoing of X
    • not productive in Wdm

Proto-Lakovic syntax

Proto-Lakovic had flexible word order, but the most common word order was VSO.


  • *petk ~ *ptek 'live'
    • *ptek-s
      • Wdm fteach 'body'
  • *ləkof = human, person
  • *ṛ-: nonvolitional
    • Wdm -ră-, -năr-
  • *ätk~*täk~*tkä 'to go'
    • Proto-Ashanic àrtka < *ṛ-tkä
      • Windermere răchta 'to die'
      • Tseer adhka 'to go'
      • Tsjoen tjo
  • PAsh *ksìʔ > Wdm. csie 'star'
  • PAsh *śkey > Wdm. scey 'bark'
  • PAsh *ʔmä 'mother'
    • Wdm. ăma
  • PAsh *ʔeb 'father'
    • Wdm. ep
  • PLak *ḷban 'water'
    • PAsh àlbon
      • Wdm. blon
      • Tseer olban, Modern nban
    • Häskä əlfon
  • PLak dṛmäzh 'rain'
    • Tsrovesh dvmazh
    • PAsh dàrmày
      • Wdm. trămäy
  • PAsh mdäŋ 'to struggle, to fight'
    • Wdm.mătäng 'war'
  • PLak žän 'to say'
    • PAsh šan 'to utter, to say'; šàn 'word'
      • Proto-Tumhanic hjàn 'word'
        • Schong jahn
        • Æ jov?
      • Wdm. șän
  • PLak lgän 'straight, upright'
    • PAsh àlgan
      • Wdm. glan 'straight'
      • Tseer ookhan
  • *ʔpor 'high'
    • Wdm. ăfur 'noble'
    • Tseer ofor 'high'


aHdan, aHrät, atsiw, amsHäk, amsHut

some reflexes of 1, 2 based on *Hadna and *Härta