|Writing system||Tseer script|
When the Windermere Empire fell in 1004 fT as a result of the Grwidite-Ngronaist Revolution, many Tseeric- and Talmic-speaking peoples newly settled in the land. These Tseeric vernaculars represented variation that already existed in the originally Tseer-speaking area. These Tseeric vernaculars were already separate languages by then, and they came to be associated with different nation-states in Talma.
Compared to Classical Windermere, Classical Tseer has more conservative vowels but less conservative consonants.
Unlike Windermere, Tseer vocalized some laryngeals in clusters, namely *Q and *f.
Vocalized *f, vowels which were colored by *f, and u-umlaut of /a/ and /e/ are the main sources of /ø/ in Tseer.
The laryngeals *X ("far laryngeal") and *H ("near laryngeal") produced breathy vowels, which eventually became nasal vowels. (In Ashanic, *f functions as the far laryngeal.)
- Nasal vowels merge with nonnasal vowels before m/n/ng/l
- Final -ng disappears leaving nasalization (as in Skellan)
- p > f
- final -g, -w disappear
- ś, g > kh /x/
- s- > *θ > t /t/
- š-, y- > x-
- t- > dh /D/
- -s > -x, *s backs to s following ruki; feminine -s becomes -kh
- c, ć > tx, ts
- CäC- > CaC-
Classical Tseer has 21 phonemic consonants: Syllable-final v ð are allophones of /b d/, and syllable final b d g are allophones of /p t k/.
m n ng /ŋ/
t th /ʈ/ k ' /ʔ/
b d dh /ɖ/ g
f x /s~z/ kh /x/ h
tx /ts/ ts /tʃ/
v ð /ð/ (only syllable finally)
w r /r̝~ʒ/ l y /j/
- /x/ is [ʂ] in some dialects
- b d g = [p t k] word-finally.
Classical Tseer has 10 vowels: 6 oral and 4 nasal.
a e i o u ø /a e i o u ɵ/
aa ee oo øø /ã ẽ õ ɵ̃/
/ɵ/ will be transcribed as /ø/ for convenience.
Classical Tseer had no stress.
No initial clusters are allowed; also, final -p -t -th -k are forbidden.
Classical Tseer morphology is much like Classical Windermere: nouns have masculine and feminine gender, and verbs inflect for aspect, tense, voice, and gender agreement using prefixes, infixes and reduplication.
|I||we (inc. du.)||thou (m.)||thou (f.)||he||she||we (exc.)||we (inc. pl.)||you (m. pl.)||you (f. pl.)||they (m.)||they (f.)|
Todo: correlatives table
this, that = ti, fi
this/that man = ten, fen; this/that woman = teex, feex
here, there = mid, mif
Like Classical Windermere, each noun has an intrinsic gender, either masculine or feminine. For most feminine nouns, the feminine is marked with -kh or its vocalized form -e (from PLak *-s).
- ativ = son-in-law; ativekh = daughter-in-law
- bakhoo = uncle; bakhookh = aunt
- athaay = lion; athaayekh = lioness
Plurals are formed by reduplication with the reduplicant modified for phonotactic or euphonic reasons.
- athaay 'lion' > a'athaay 'lions'
- moog 'feather' > momoog 'feathers'
TODO: plural reduplication rules
Feminine subject: wa-
- Danutx-ir ownax /da'nutsir ow'nas/ = I loved the girl (male speaker)
- Wadanutx-ir ownax /wada'nutsir ow'nas/ = I loved the girl (female speaker)
- Passive: haa- (~ Windermere ha-)
- Reflexive/Reciprocal: 〈ax〉 (~ Wdm 〈iș〉)
Pluractionality is used when a verb is done multiple times or done to multiple objects.
Pluractionality: Fe-, FeL-, eeFe- or eeFeL- (cf. Windermere frequentative enFă-)
- Perfective aspect: unmarked
- Intensive: tho-, ~ Wdm. thu-
- Imperfective aspect: le- or reduplication
- Progressive: oL-, oo- (~ Wdm. ăL-, Modern oL- with non-past meaning)
- Imperative: af- (~ Wdm. hef-; Modern Tseer uses xa- for imperative)
Like in Hebrew piyyutim, to count as a rhyme the initial consonants of the last syllables also have to match, not just the rimes. For example, fothaay rhymes with athaay but not with gobaay.
Classical Tseer poetry is based on lines with
- a prescribed number of syllables
- a caesura somewhere in the middle
- the lines rhyme in some rhyme scheme, usually in rhyming couplets (aa) or rhyming quatrains (aaaa).
We use "m+n" to denote a meter of m syllables + caesura + n syllables.
Some meters were: