Lakovic languages

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Not to be confused with the Lahob languages.

Swadesh lists for the Lakovic languages

Lakovic languages/Sketchbook

Setting Tricin
Originally Talma, Bjeheond and Txapoalli; today worldwide
Linguistic classification: One of Tricin's primary language families
Proto-language: Proto-Lakovic
Western Bjeheondian

The Lakovic languages (/ləˈkoʊvɪk/ lə-KOH-vik; Windermere: fi imbrits Lăcof) are a major Trician language family, originally native to Talma. The family is inspired by Semitic, Mon-Khmer and Austronesian languages.

Some people put Arpalan, Lakovic, Pategic, and Clofabosin into a macrofamily.

Roots from Netagin (to be used in PLak)

  • s-r-ć: to heed, to obey
  • y-r-z: to hear
  • ŋ-c: be in front
  • n-s-d: learn
  • m-r: go
  • w-x-s: love
  • b-n-s: hide
  • l-z-f: poke
  • z-ħ-m: praise, honor
  • ŋ-þ-w: new
  • x-3-f: reason
  • h-ŋ-c: empty, null
  • ħ-d-x: warm
  • c-ŋ-t: garden, horticulture
  • g-m-z: letter, element
  • ŋ-b-ś: compassion, sympathy
  • f-ś-r: agree, blend
  • n-b-ś: courage
  • þ-f-x: know
  • y-r-f: roll
  • f-c-m: read
  • l-x-r: write
  • z-r-b: true, firm
  • ś-d-l: half, split
  • f-s-t: step, stage
  • ʔ-b-l: mind
  • w-t-f: die
  • þ-ŋ-b: measure
  • z-m-z-m: hesitate
  • s-w-ħ: king, rule
  • ħ-c-g: value
  • ʔ-t-r: punish
  • g-b-n: say
  • k-l-k-l: tile
  • b-s-ŋ: clan, family
  • b-c-3: force, coerce
  • r-ʔ-b: criticize
  • f-s-k: beast
  • k-l-d: agree
  • z-l-n: comfort, solace
  • ʔ-ś-þ: light, color
  • y-d-ś: compare, similar, metaphor
  • s-f-l: dear
  • w-d-r: equal, same
  • ħ-g-r: different
  • m-g-þ: assign
  • k-b-ć: shield, fortress
  • k-z-r: hand over
  • c-b-s: show, exhibit
  • ħ-r-x: open
  • þ-k-s: good, great
  • ħ-n-b: use
  • s-n-l: help
  • f-þ-ʔ: proud
  • s-f-n: bold
  • x-r-r: young
  • x-l-n: eternity
  • l-n: come
  • l-r-y: wait
  • n-m-y: fall
  • k-z-n: stop, settle
  • b-r-c: speak
  • ś-n-ħ: near
  • ħ-t-r: swim
  • ś-r-g: develop, evolve
  • r-x-m: dwell
  • ć-h-k: cold
  • d-ħ-s: strong
  • t-k: to sit on
  • s-b-d: form, become
  • ŋ-z-ʔ: pure
  • d-ŋ-n: lowly, debased, humiliate
  • ŋ-þ-ħ: stretch, deform
  • r-ŋ-b: precious
  • b-ħ-d: round
  • z-n: grasp
  • f-n-3: shine, radiate
  • n-k-d: soft
  • z-n-k: bite


Lakovic should be huge

Urheimat: Talma

Language with dissimilated reduplicated plurals/verbs

Proto-Ashanic = vaguely Salish grammar

some confusion between derivational affixes and trigger/applicatives in Ashanic

an ergative Lakovic language

a Txapoallian Lakovic language with a possessed classifier system



Proto-Lakovic phonology

vaguely Proto-Semitic/Algonquian/Georgian


Labial Dental Domed Palatal Velar Uvular Laryngeal
Nasal m /m/ n /n/ ŋ /ŋ/
Plosive voiced b /b/ d /d/ g /ɡ/
voiceless p /p/ t /t/ k /k/ ʔ /ʔ/
Affricate c /t͡s/ ć /t͡ʂ/
Fricative s /s/ ś /ʂ/ š /ʃ/ x /x/ H
Resonant w /w/ l /l/ r /r/ y /j/


i u e o ə a

There is some disagreement about the vowel ə - it may have been /æ/ or /ə/.


Dominated by CV or CVC syllables. Some prefixes and infixes resulted in CC-'s.

Proto-Lakovic morphology

Root structure

Roots consisted of a sequence of consonants plus an inherent vowel. Schwebeablaut was used, so the vowel could change places. The roots could be of the form

  1. biconsonantal roots alternating between CVC and CCV. Example: sep ~ spe 'to walk'
  2. triconsonantal roots alternating between CCVC, CVCC, and CVCVC. Example: ptsun ~ putsn ~ putsun 'to live'

Statistically, biconsonantal roots in Lakovic are more common than in Semitic; triconsonantal roots are derived from biconsonantals via root extensions.

Various prefixes, infixes and suffixes were added to derive words. Infixes can have 2 allomorphs, either as an infix or as a prefix: C<əC>CVC or C-CVC/C-CVCC.

Three-consonant roots had 3 ablaut grades, traditionally called:

  • Verbal grade: CCVC
  • Nominal grade: CVCC
  • Long grade: CVCVC

The CVCC grade had some reflexes with either the first C assimilating into V or the second C (explain some words like muad, yar or -b, -d finals)


Nouns were pluralized by total reduplication:

  • lakof 'person' > lakof-lakof 'people'
  • ptek 'flesh' > ptek-ptek 'a large quantity of flesh'

There was a feminine suffix -is/-s.

Nouns had no morphological case; genitive noun phrases were formed by concatenation.

Ashanic developed a new associative plural suffix -am, from npäm 'group; fellow' (the -am in Modern Windermere plural pronouns łănam, ănam).

Case markers

Case markers came before the noun:

  • t = direct case
  • xu = indirect case


Most branches of Lakovic show evidence for the following PLak pronouns:

  • *riH = I
  • *bəŋ = we (dual inclusive)
  • *śen = thou (m)
  • *śens = thou (f)
  • *ʔin = he
  • *ʔins = she

PLak had no plural pronouns; it made do with associative plurals or demonstratives instead.

Possessive prefixes

Verbs and adjectives

Proto-Lakovic was a verb-heavy language: verbs contained enough information that a sentence could consist of just a verb, and context made sense of the meaning.

Verbs inflected for triggers, TAM, pluractionality, evidentiality, and gender agreement. Present-day Lakovic languages preserve these inflections to varying levels.


  • wa- = feminine


  • -H perfective


Triggers (giving the noun in the direct case specific semantic roles) were marked by adding infixes to the verbal grade of the root. The original trigger system became a derivational system in daughter languages, much like binyanim (originally marking voice) in Semitic languages.

  • əp = patient trigger
  • əl = reciprocal
  • əŋ = destination trigger
  • it = locative trigger
  • əm/nəm = ablative/causative trigger
  • əw = instrument trigger

Derivational morphology

Root extensions

There is much evidence that the truly basic roots were CVC~CCV roots, and CVCC~CCVC roots were derived from CVC~CCV via suffixing a third root consonant.

  • ngith = to happen
    • ngithw~ngthiw = new


  • -s: feminine
    • Source of breathy voice ablaut in Wdm.
  • prefix or infix: non-volitional or passive verbs
    • Ashanic *àr, Wdm. , năr/măr
  • ay = deverbal noun
  • an = deverbal noun
  • aH = agentive
  • b- = agentive
    • Wdm. pă- (not productive)
    • Tseer ba-
  • ha- = resultative (passive in Windermere)
  • t- = causative
    • Wdm. th- (not productive)
  • lä- = denominals
  • ʔu- = intensive
    • Wdm. th-u-
  • ya- = adjectivizer; from ya 'with'
    • Wdm. yă-, Tseezh xi-, Häskä yə-
  • ʔ = negative; the opposite or undoing of X
    • not productive in Wdm

Proto-Lakovic syntax

Proto-Lakovic had flexible word order, but the most common word order was VSO.


  • spe-H t riH ʔopr-is (<DEST>walk-PFV DIR 1SG height-FEM) = I walked up high (neutral)
  • xu ʔopr-is s<əŋ>pe-H t riH (IND height-FEM <DEST>walk-PFV DIR 1SG) = I walked up high (emphasis on "up high")


  • *ʔpor~*ʔopr 'high'
    • Wdm. ăfur 'noble'
    • Tseer ofør 'high'
  • *mont ~ *mnot 'to produce, to grow, to give birth'
    • *mont-is
      • Wdm muad
  • *petk ~ *ptek 'to inhabit, to occupy, to be at'
    • *paHtek
      • Wdm fteach 'body'
  • PLak dmäy 'to drop, to grant'
    • PAsh dàrmày 'rain'
      • Wdm. trămäy
  • *putsn ~ *ptsun 'to live'
  • *ləkof = human, person
  • PAsh mdäŋ 'to struggle, to fight'
    • Wdm. mătäng 'war'
  • *ṛ-: nonvolitional
    • Wdm -ră-, -năr-
  • *täk~*tkä' 'to go'
    • Proto-Ashanic àrtka < *ṛ-tkä
      • Windermere răchta 'to die'
      • Tseer adhka 'to go'
      • Tsjoen tjo
  • PAsh *ksìʔ > Wdm. csie 'star'
  • PAsh *śkey > Wdm. scey 'bark'
  • PAsh *ʔmä 'mother'
    • Wdm. ăma
  • PAsh *ʔeb 'father'
    • Wdm. ep
  • PLak *ḷban 'water'
    • PAsh àlbon
      • Wdm. blon
      • Tseer olban, Modern nban
    • Häskä əlfon
  • PLak žän 'to say'
    • PAsh šan 'to utter, to say'; šàn 'word'
      • Proto-Tumhanic hjàn 'word'
        • Schong jahn
        • Æ jov?
      • Wdm. șän
  • PLak lgän~lägn 'straight, upright'
    • PAsh àlgan
      • Wdm. glan 'straight'
      • Tseer ookhan


aHdan, aHrät, atsiw, amsHäk, amsHut

some reflexes of 1, 2 based on *Hadna and *Härta