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Africa: SEDES • Middle Semitic • Kintu • Guosa Central Asia: Jalpi • Caucas • Zens • Dravindian • Neo-Sanskrit Europe: Intralingua • Folksprak • Interslavic • Balkan • Samboka Far East: Dan'a'yo • IM • MSEAL
The term "Balkan" refers to a peninsula, a region, a history, and a sprachbund, all bounded differently and all disagreed upon. Also known as Southeast Europe, linguists have long defined an areal sprachbund here.
There is one vote for each of the following groups
- Northern Eastern Romance (consisting of Romanian and Moldovan)
- Southern Eastern Romance (consisting of Aromanian, Megleno-Romanian, and Istro-Romanian)
- Eastern Southern Slavic (consisting of Macedonian, Bulgarian, and Old Church Slavonic)
- Western Southern Slavic (consisting of Slovene, and Serbo-Croatian-Bosnian-Montenegrin), and
- Balkan Romani
Judeo-Spanish, and Gagauz Turkish do not normally get a vote.
Unlike a lot of other sprachbünde, the Balkans does not share much common phonology. Hence, a pan-Balkan language is necessarily left only with those elements common to all the source languages. It consists of 16 consonants, 6 vowels, and 3 diphthongs.
Balkan is written in the Greek alphabet, but borrows one letter from Cyrillic. Two sounds are digraphs and two graphemes have two sounds. θ is not "native" and ω indicates schwa.
The writing system is Greek plus Cyrillic be.
|Nasal||/m/ Μ/μ||/n/ Ν/ν|
|Plosive||voiceless||/p/ Π/π||/t/ Τ/τ||/k/ Κ/κ|
|voiced||/b/ Б/б||/d/ Δ/δ||/ɡ/ Γ/γ|
|Fricative||voiceless||/f/ Φ/φ||/s~ʃ/ Σ/σ/ς||/x~h/ Χ/χ|
|voiced||/v~ʋ/ Β/β||/z~ʒ/ Ζ/ζ|
|Approximant||/r~ɹ/ Ρ/ρ||/j/ Ι/ι|
Θ/θ is only used in the transcription of foreign words. There are also Ξ/ξ which is /ks/ and Ψ/ψ which is /ps/.
The vowels are five cardinals plus schwa, any of which can be stressed. A/α is /a/, Ε/ε is /e/, Η/η is /i/, Ο/ο is /o~ɔ/, Υ/υ is /u/, and Ω/ω is /ǝ/.
Stress is predictable and right-defined.
Balkan nouns and adjectives inflect for 3 genders, 3 cases, and 2 numbers. Gender and case generally flatten in the plural. The cases are Nominative, Accusative, and Oblique. The oblique is governed by a preposition. There is a vocative preposition. The definite article is a postposition. The indefinite article is a preposition, but just a form of the number one.
SVO, Relative clauses after, Negations particle, evidential particles
see also Balkan/Swadesh for comparative etymologies and word list.