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Universal Language Map
Writing w:新字体
Region: w:East Asia
Genders: 0
Cases: 0
Proto-language: w:Sinosphere
Typology: Analytic
Word-Order SVO

w:Korean language, w:Japanese language, w:Chinese language w:Vietnamese language

Population: 1500 million
Flag of Dan'a'yo

Africa: SEDESMiddle SemiticKintuGuosa Central Asia: JalpiCaucasZensDravindianNeo-Sanskrit Europe: IntralinguaFolksprakInterslavicBalkanSamboka Far East: Dan'a'yoIMMSEAL

単亜語(단아요) is a zonal auxlang[1] intended to be quickly learnable, readily comprehensible, and mutually communicative between persons of the East Asian cultural sphere. It has an underlying foundation of Chinese characters for every word, with some glyphs being simplified according to the shinjitai (新字体) standards of Japan. The Hangǔl alphabet should be presented at the same time whenever possible, and is also used for phonetic transcription. It is not tonal, mostly analytic, SVO, topic-prominent, uses classifiers, is pro-drop, copula-drop, and uses postpositions.



単亜語 has 5 vowels and 16 consonants.

単亜語 Consonants
Labial Alveolar Palatal Velar
Nasals /m/ /n/ /ŋ/
Aspirates /pʰ/ /tʰ/ /t͡ɕʰ~cʰ/ /kʰ/
Voiced /b~p/ /d~t/ /dʑ~tɕ/ /g~k/
Fricatives /s ~ ɕ/ /h ~ ɦ ~ x/
Sonorants w /w/ /l ~ ɾ/ y/j/

(W and Y are archived with special glyphs.) While there is a great deal of consonantal allophony (see below), every language speaker will experience some sounds as difficult, especially in achieving consistency.

単亜語 Vowels
Front Central Back
High /i ~ ɪ/ /u ~ ɯ/
Mid /e ~ e̞/ /o ~ o̞/
Low /a ~ ä/

Again, a great deal of tolerance is required when listening to others. Non-Mandarin speakers will have the hardest time being patient with Chinese vowels, but accents are part of being international!


Maximally, a Dan'a'yo syllable consists of an ONSET consonant, an ON-GLIDE, a VOWEL, and an OFF-GLIDE or CODA CONSONANT. The ONSET can be ø or any consonant except ŋ, the ON-GLIDE can be ø, y, or w, the VOWEL must exist, and the CODA CONSONANT can be ø, y, w, b, d, g, m, n, or ng..


Like Chinese and Vietnamese (and unlike Japanese and Korean), 単亜語 is SVO, subject-verb-object. The subject of an intransitive verb and the actor of transitive verb come before early in the sentence, and the accusative argument must come after the verb. There are no particles to mark subject or object. 単亜語 tries to have the verb be second-to-last, comparable but backwards to the Germanic V2 word order.

Relationship Particle English Mandarin Cantonese Japanese Korean Vietnamese
Topic as for - - は wa 은/는 (n)ǔn cái
Vocative () O ya yeo
Dative to - - に ni 에게 ege đến
Genitive () of 的 de 嘅 ge の no 의 ǔi của
Instrumental () by 用 yòng 用 yung6 で de 로/으로 ro/ǔro
Locative () in, on, at 在 zài 喺 hai2 に ni 에 e
Comitative together with
Assoc. Pl. () et. al. 們 men 哋 dei6 たち tachi 들 tǔl
Perfective () -ed 了 le 咗 jo2 た/だ ta/da 았/었 att/ǒtt đã
Progressive -ing 아/어 a/ǒ
Subjunctive may
Nominalizer () -ed
Nominalizer ji -ing
Adnominalizer ()
Adverbializer () -ly
NP And o and
VP And ni and

Sentence Final Particles


Singular Plural
Casual First 我等
Second 君等
Third 彼人 彼人等


Counting is not done with numerals as adjectives before the noun phrase, but with special classifiers + numerals after the noun phrase, as adverbs.

Classifier Use
() people (general)
menu people (polite)
tai machines (computers, cars, etc)
pitu animals (all animals, worms, fish, horses, etc)
jaku books, magazines, etc
pei cups of some drink
mei flat objects (pizzas, paper, etc)
teu long objects (pencils, noodles, etc)
kan periods of time (seconds, years, ages, etc)
ka anything else

Plants, animals and things that may have hanji beyond our corpus or are nation-specific, should be spelled out phonetically, but appended with a "determiner", a hanji that shows what class of being the creature is. This is helpful, as it gives a hint to those unfamiliar with the being.

Determiner Use Example
wa amphibians
teu birds Japanese quail ウスラ鳥 usura-teu
o fish nekogigi catfish ネコキキ魚 nekokiki-o
tunu invertebrates
siu mammals
lonu reptiles tyrannosaurus チラン龍 tiran-lonu
hua flowers
jau grass
moku trees, bushes
puku clothes kimono キモノ服 kimono-puku
puen meals bibimbap ピピムパプ飯 pipimupapu-puen

Demonstratives and indefinite

Demonstratives occur in the 此 ji-, 其 ki-, and 彼 pi- series. The 此 ji- (proximal) series refers to things closer to the speaker than the hearer, the 其 ki- (mesial) series for things closer to the hearer, and the 彼 pi- (distal) series for things distant to both the speaker and the hearer. With 何 ha-, demonstratives turn into the corresponding interrogative form.

(此 ji-)
(其 ki-)
(彼 pi-)
(何 ha-)
(無 miu-)
(毎 mei-)
(某 mou)
(? ?)
Adjective ji
that over there

Thing (物 -mutu) 此物 jimutu
this one
其物 kimutu
that one
彼物 pimutu
that one over there
何物 hamutu
which one
無物 miumutu
毎物 meimutu
某物 moumutu

Person (人 -nin) 此人 jinin
this person
其人 kinin
that person
彼人 pinin
that person over there
何人 hanin
無人 miunin
毎人 meinin
某人 mounin

Place (処 -jo) 此処 jijo
其処 kijo
彼処 pijo
over there
何処 hajo
無処 miujo
毎処 meijo
某処 moujo

Time (時 -) 此時 jisi
其時 kisi
彼時 pisi
at that other time
何時 hasi
無時 miusi
毎時 meisi
某時 mousi

Manner (様 -yanu) 此様 jiyanu
in this manner
其様 kiyanu
in that manner
彼様 piyanu
in that other manner
何様 hayanu
某様 mouyanu
Quantity (多 -ta) 此多 jita
this many / much
其多 kita
that many / much
彼多 pita
in that other quantity
何多 hata
how many / much
Kind (-chi)
like this

like that

like that other kind

what kind of
Reason (因 -in) 何因 hain


Dan'a'yo forcibly limits the number of Chinese characters which can be used to around 2,000. Each character is like a letter and may or may not be a word on its own. Characters which are not words have a two-character word which is deemed to be the same as the solo character. Every character (in theory, all 45,000 Chinese characters which have every been used) is assigned to one of _ categories: Common, Advanced, Name, Illegal, and Alternate. Alternates are unacceptable versions of legitimate character. Illegal characters can never be used at all. Name characters are supposed to be used only in Proper Names. Advanced character should only be used after the are introduced and defined. Common characters are grouped by levels, to help aide learning. Characters which are not linked are not capable of appearing alone, but should still be learned.

Grade 1

一, 七, 万, 三, 上, 下, 与, 世, 両, 中, 主, 之, 九, 事, 二, 于, 五, 交, 人, 今, 他, 休, 会, 住, 何, 作, 使, 元, 先, 入, 全, 八, 六, 内, 冬, 出, 刀, 分, 前, 力, 動, 北, 十, 千, 午, 半, 南, 友, 口, 右, 号, 名, 向, 君, 和, 哉, 問, 四, 回, 国, 圓, 土, 地, 場, 声, 売, 夏, 外, 多, 夜, 大, 天, 太, 女, 妹, 姉, 子, 字, 学, 家, 宿, 対, 小, 少, 山, 左, 已, 市, 年, 幸, 度, 庭, 弟, 当, 彼, 後, 心, 思, 急, 想, 意, 所, 手, 才, 打, 持, 指, 放, 教, 数, 文, 新, 於, 族, 日, 早, 明, 春, 晴, 書, 月, 有, 朝, 木, 本, 村, 東, 林, 某, 校, 根, 森, 業, 橋, 次, 歌, 正, 死, 母, 毎, 毛, 気, 水, 注, 活, 流, 海, 深, 湖, 漢, 火, 灯, 点, 父, 牛, 犬, 玉, 王, 生, 用, 田, 男, 画, 病, 発, 白, 百, 皆, 目, 相, 真, 着, 知, 短, 石, 研, 秋, 究, 空, 立, 章, 竹, 第, 筆, 等, 算, 米, 糸, 紙, 細, 緑, 羊, 習, 耳, 肉, 育, 船, 花, 苦, 草, 薬, 虫, 行, 表, 西, 見, 記, 話, 語, 読, 談, 買, 走, 起, 足, 路, 車, 軽, 農, 近, 送, 通, 進, 道, 遠, 都, 酒, 里, 重, 金, 長, 門, 開, 間, 集, 雨, 雪, 雲, 電, 青, 音, 頗, 頭, 顔, 風, 馬, 高, 魚, 黄, 黒

Grade 2

不, 久, 乎, 乗, 争, 京, 代, 以, 伝, 位, 低, 例, 便, 信, 個, 借, 停, 備, 億, 兄, 光, 児, 公, 共, 兵, 典, 再, 冷, 列, 初, 別, 利, 功, 加, 労, 勇, 勝, 化, 医, 単, 印, 危, 収, 取, 古, 句, 各, 合, 同, 告, 唱, 図, 固, 在, 坐, 城, 基, 堂, 報, 増, 士, 変, 失, 好, 守, 完, 官, 定, 室, 害, 察, 将, 就, 屋, 展, 岩, 島, 己, 布, 希, 席, 帰, 常, 干, 平, 広, 店, 建, 弓, 引, 弱, 強, 形, 往, 待, 従, 得, 忘, 快, 念, 悲, 情, 愛, 成, 我, 戦, 戸, 技, 投, 挙, 接, 推, 支, 改, 政, 故, 救, 敗, 散, 料, 方, 旧, 昨, 時, 晩, 暑, 暖, 暗, 最, 望, 期, 未, 来, 松, 果, 栄, 案, 植, 極, 楽, 樹, 止, 此, 歩, 歴, 殺, 比, 民, 氷, 永, 求, 決, 河, 油, 治, 洗, 浅, 清, 満, 漁, 無, 然, 熱, 爾, 片, 物, 特, 現, 理, 産, 由, 留, 番, 登, 的, 皮, 直, 省, 看, 破, 示, 祖, 祝, 神, 科, 移, 種, 窓, 童, 競, 笑, 答, 節, 約, 紅, 終, 給, 続, 線, 練, 美, 義, 老, 考, 聞, 能, 脚, 自, 興, 舎, 良, 色, 芸, 英, 莫, 菜, 落, 葉, 血, 街, 衣, 要, 親, 観, 角, 計, 訪, 設, 試, 詩, 誤, 説, 課, 調, 講, 謝, 議, 谷, 豆, 豊, 貨, 責, 貴, 赤, 身, 軍, 追, 退, 速, 連, 運, 過, 達, 適, 選, 部, 野, 量, 鉄, 銀, 銭, 関, 難, 静, 非, 面, 順, 題, 願, 類, 飛, 飯, 養, 首, 鳥, 鳴, 麦, 鼻

Grade 3

丁, 且, 丙, 乙, 也, 乾, 井, 令, 仮, 但, 体, 余, 佛, 佳, 価, 係, 俗, 保, 修, 倍, 偉, 傷, 充, 其, 冊, 写, 凡, 凶, 判, 到, 則, 助, 効, 勉, 務, 勢, 勤, 勧, 匹, 協, 即, 卵, 厚, 原, 厳, 又, 及, 反, 叔, 受, 只, 可, 吹, 味, 呼, 命, 哀, 品, 商, 喪, 困, 園, 均, 執, 堅, 墨, 壮, 夕, 如, 妻, 始, 姓, 威, 婚, 婦, 存, 季, 孫, 宅, 宇, 安, 宗, 宙, 実, 客, 容, 密, 富, 寒, 寸, 寺, 寿, 射, 尚, 尤, 尺, 尽, 局, 居, 崇, 川, 工, 巨, 巻, 帝, 幾, 序, 式, 張, 律, 徒, 復, 徳, 必, 忍, 忙, 応, 忠, 怒, 性, 恨, 息, 悟, 患, 悦, 悪, 惜, 愁, 感, 慶, 憶, 房, 扶, 承, 抱, 招, 拝, 拾, 授, 採, 探, 揚, 敢, 整, 敵, 斗, 旅, 既, 易, 星, 是, 昼, 暴, 曲, 更, 曽, 朋, 服, 末, 朴, 杯, 柔, 柳, 栽, 様, 権, 歓, 武, 歯, 歳, 氏, 江, 沖, 波, 泳, 洋, 洞, 浄, 浪, 浮, 浴, 涼, 混, 渇, 減, 湯, 潔, 為, 烈, 煙, 猶, 球, 瓦, 甘, 甚, 甲, 申, 界, 異, 皇, 益, 盛, 眠, 眼, 礼, 福, 秀, 私, 税, 穀, 端, 篇, 精, 純, 素, 経, 結, 統, 絶, 罪, 羽, 者, 聖, 聴, 胸, 脱, 致, 舌, 舞, 若, 茶, 華, 虎, 製, 解, 言, 許, 証, 認, 誠, 請, 論, 譲, 貝, 負, 賀, 賞, 質, 迎, 造, 遇, 遊, 遺, 郷, 針, 鐘, 閉, 閑, 防, 降, 限, 除, 陰, 陽, 雄, 霜, 露, 革, 頂, 須, 領, 食, 飲, 館, 香, 驚, 鮮, 鶏

Grades 4-6


卜, 仇, 勾, 丐, 忽, 冗, 夭, 厄, 禾, 呻, 孕, 叱, 丼, 矛, 囚, 臼, 亦, 伎, 扱, 肛, 佔, 旱, 芯, 吻, 吼, 亨, 忌, 巫, 坊, 沌, 呆, 杆, 沫, 苛, 狙, 枢, 呪, 妬, 宛, 劾, 帖, 祀, 旺, 斧, 妾, 泄, 昌, 炒, 枝, 呵, 艾, 坦, 爬, 乖, 祉, 姪, 珀, 卸, 姨, 郎, 珊, 殆, 哇, 咳, 扁, 軌, 弧, 耶, 柵, 弯, 拷, 叛, 迥, 剌, 洒, 哄, 俄, 津, 按, 俐, 捌, 恕, 耗, 浜, 玆, 匿, 站, 浬, 訊, 挽, 栓, 俳, 閃, 胴, 娩, 俵, 夷, 桁, 哨, 浩, 捏, 宵, 套, 挫, 畔, 俸, 朕, 倣, 窄, 逝, 淑, 斎, 勒, 渚, 焉, 兜, 掠, 毫, 措, 舷, 訛, 猜, 婢, 萎, 掻, 逗, 唵, 淋, 鱗, 聊, 羞, 唖, 堵, 匙, 桶, 蛋, 啄, 勘, 捧, 喋, 湾, 棚, 硯, 婿, 筒, 敦, 閏, 喘, 粟, 粥, 逼, 隅, 徨, 脹, 棟, 智, 堤, 跑, 甥, 詔, 祷, 扉, 楷, 羨, 賎, 詰, 頌, 睦, 瑚, 酩, 愈, 肆, 詣, 睛, 愧, 奨, 碍, 溜, 嗣, 馳, 跨, 虜, 塑, 頓, 膣, 摒, 嫡, 瘍, 塾, 暢, 碧, 槍, 鳳, 綻, 慙, 萌, 裳, 誦, 劃, 滲, 愨, 腿, 漱, 塵, 魂, 嫩, 遥, 鬧, 寮, 憬, 憫, 戮, 摯, 廟, 撒, 蔬, 潰, 餌, 皺, 撮, 碼, 慧, 諒, 勲, 罷, 幟, 嘲, 誼, 噸, 墾, 憾, 鋸, 緯, 諧, 膳, 錮, 謂, 諮, 餐, 錘, 諭, 憐, 壅, 錦, 諦, 憩, 諱, 臆, 擬, 輿, 繍, 鍬, 燭, 蔔, 癇, 礁, 聯, 瞥, 鍾, 螺, 癌, 瀑, 闖, 叢, 襟, 鎌, 璧, 蹲, 繰, 覇, 璽, 襪, 囊, 蘿


巳, 兀, 壬, 刈, 巴, 亢, 尹, 仄, 廿, 什, 曰, 歹, 仍, 弘, 卉, 卯, 戊, 汀, 仔, 疋, 乍, 叭, 弗, 瓜, 尼, 牟, 朴, 戍, 圭, 肋, 旭, 汎, 芝, 丞, 匈, 朶, 芋, 伊, 伍, 卍, 亥, 尖, 艮, 戌, 曳, 杏, 阮, 佑, 伶, 汪, 佃, 舛, 牡, 呂, 些, 戻, 劫, 芭, 杉, 伽, 灼, 李, 兎, 呉, 甫, 汲, 壱, 祁, 吞, 辰, 囧, 罔, 狐, 邸, 抛, 侃, 虱, 尭, 阜, 昊, 孟, 竺, 祇, 坪, 奄, 坤, 刮, 邱, 宕, 沓, 侑, 姑, 岬, 邵, 岡, 珈, 孩, 哈, 侠, 頁, 勅, 姚, 柑, 柿, 珉, 娃, 殃, 姥, 郁, 柏, 洲, 胡, 栃, 祐, 拶, 胤, 垓, 韋, 珂, 咸, 柴, 禹, 兪, 姜, 彦, 洛, 朔, 蚤, 豹, 栗, 郝, 烏, 狸, 桓, 哥, 桧, 秦, 胰, 衲, 芻, 唉, 恣, 隼, 陛, 挨, 豈, 桂, 玖, 挺, 姫, 桟, 酎, 俺, 釘, 奚, 拿, 蚊, 俯, 祢, 唐, 袁, 釧, 猪, 捺, 崙, 淵, 鹵, 苹, 這, 盒, 苑, 寅, 甜, 梁, 堀, 曼, 雀, 埼, 晨, 曹, 萄, 苟, 翌, 亀, 崔, 淳, 卿, 琶, 凱, 蛞, 腔, 棗, 茫, 雁, 犂, 跌, 欽, 弼, 遁, 嵐, 厥, 巽, 壷, 飧, 塚, 茨, 猩, 舜, 喬, 閔, 覃, 彭, 鄂, 椎, 馮, 貂, 臍, 琵, 湊, 斯, 媛, 茸, 鈩, 傅, 蛙, 虞, 搾, 煎, 裾, 蛾, 牒, 鄒, 㐮, 賈, 椰, 鼎, 煤, 媽, 蜀, 猿, 鉤, 楠, 嫁, 祿, 葛, 鼠, 楊, 碁, 爺, 楚, 楕, 閨, 裴, 嘗, 甄, 鳶, 慷, 蕉, 禎, 熊, 菅, 僕, 銑, 蔡, 趙, 蝋, 廖, 聡, 瑠, 踝, 箕, 廠, 蝉, 黎, 蝓, 醇, 蝸, 劉, 撇, 魯, 稼, 鴎, 撞, 駕, 蝦, 餃, 嬉, 熬, 駒, 凜, 葡, 豎, 鋒, 畿, 靠, 潘, 蝶, 錫, 錆, 蒙, 蹄, 鮎, 橘, 薪, 踵, 錐, 璣, 蕭, 燕, 薛, 駱, 閻, 橐, 醍, 叡, 諡, 盧, 頤, 螂, 嬢, 牆, 謄, 鮫, 磯, 儧, 檗, 鞠, 檀, 幇, 霞, 醤, 擡, 蒋, 膿, 蟄, 鴻, 鮟, 嶺, 鵝, 攄, 鯉, 藤, 藩, 魏, 鎬, 麒, 麓, 龐, 藻, 瀧, 鵰, 繋, 鯛, 蟹, 鯨, 譚, 襖, 隴, 鰌, 鰐, 朧, 籃, 鶴, 蠣, 纏, 齦, 灌, 轟, 蘇, 穣, 鱇, 灘, 龔, 麟, 鷺, 欒, 蘭, 鱒, 攬, 鷹, 鑽



  1. CJKV Auxlang Facebook Group



Holm, John A. Pidgins and Creoles: Volume 1, Theory and Structure . Cambridge Language Surveys. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988-1989.
---. Pidgins and Creoles: Volume 2, Reference Survey . Cambridge Language Surveys. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988-1989.
McWhorter, John. Language A to Z. Columbia University. The Great Courses, 2013. CD and booklet.


Kroll, Paul W. A Student's Dictionary of Classical and Medieval Chinese. Bilingual ed. Amersfoort, The Netherlands: Brill Academic Pub, 2014.
Miller, Roy A. Dictionary of Spoken Chinese. Taipei: Mei Ya Publications, 1966
Rouzer, Paul. A New Practical Primer of Literary Chinese. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2007.


Vaccari, Orsete, and Mrs Enko Elisa Vaccari. Complete Course of Japanese Conversation-Grammar (Entirely Reset, Greatly Enlarged) 24th Edition. Japan: Dai Nippon Printing Company, 1973.


Martin, Samuel E. Reference Grammar of Korean: a Complete Guide to the Grammar and History of the Korean Language. Revised, ed. Clarendon, VT: Tuttle Publishing, 2006.
新活用玉篇. Seoul, Korea: Dong-a Publishing and Printing Co., 1975

Language Construction

Okrent, Arika. In the Land of Invented Languages: Adventures in Linguistic Creativity, Madness, and Genius. New York: Spiegel & Grau, 2010.
Rosenfelder, Mark. The Language Construction Kit. Chicago: Yonagu Books, 2010.
---. The Planet Construction Kit. Chicago: Yonagu Books, 2010.
---. Advanced Language Construction. Chicago: Yonagu Books, 2012.
---. The Conlanger's Lexipedia. Chicago: Yonagu Books, 2013.
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