|Txapoalli, Bjeheond, Etalocin; today worldwide|
|Linguistic classification:||One of Tricin's primary language families|
The Quame languages (Eevo: brits Cłem, from *kʷēm-, the reconstructed word for 1), also known as Naquo-Talmic, are a language family in Tricin. It is well-established that that Naquic and Talmic form a Naquo-Talmic family; the relationship of Sowaár to Naquo-Talmic is conjectured by some but not well-established.
- 1 Family tree
- 2 Overview
- 3 Phonology
- 4 Grammar
- 4.1 Typology
- 4.2 Pronouns
- 4.3 Ablaut
- 4.4 Nominals
- 4.5 Verbs
- 5 Derivations
The following inventory of consonants is reconstructed for PQ and is now accepted by the majority of Trician scholars.
|Close||*i *ī||*u *ū|
|Mid||*e *ē||*o *ō|
Stress was phonemic.
all open syllables like polynesian?
- Grassmann's Law operates in many descendants.
The basic word order was V2, modifier-modified.
Proto-Quame roots were monosyllabic and obeyed the sonority hierarchy.
X = some laryngeal
V = some vowel
- nā = I (Tal./Nqu. nā)
- wey(-r) = thou (Thn. veir, Nqu. uī)
- kā(-mi) = we (exc) (Thn. cām, Nqu. txā)
- gwon(-mi-ti) = we (inc) (Thn. gonti, Nqu. quon)
- sen(-kwi) = blotp (Thn. senci, Nqu. sen)
- χ, nχ = my (Thn. -na, -a; Nqu. a; Sjo. kha)
- something with r = thy; (Thn. -r; Nqu. ir)
- smo = our (exc) (Thn.-smo, Nqu. zmo)
- sgwiX = our (inc) (Thn. -swē, Nqu. zquī)
- dkoX (?) = blotp's (Thn. -scō, Nqu. tłō? using dk > tł)
- m- = proximal, this, here
- kw- = distal, that, there
- ta- = what, who
- t(a)Xs = what (Thn. tās)
Much like in PIE, PQ had an ablaut system where roots (usually of 2 or 3 consonants) were inflected in different ablaut grades.
Functions of ablaut
- Noun inflections
- Verb inflections
- Verb voices
- Deriving nouns and verbs
- o-grade: present tense
- a-grade: derived nouns
- e-grade: preterite tense
- ∅-grade: derivations
- lengthened grades: various verb aspects/voices
Nouns and adjectives had:
- three genders: masculine, feminine, neuter
- two states: absolute and construct.
- three cases: nominative, accusative, and genitive.
- Some speculate that Proto-Quame originally had an intransitive-transitive alignment. The nominative and accusative may have originally been intransitive and transitive cases respectively, since stative verbs in the 3rd person singular have nominative endings, while eventive verbs in the 3rd person singular have endings similar to accusative endings.
- two numbers: singular and plural.
- Some nouns had broken plurals formed by reduplicating of the first syllable or using a different ablaut grade. The broken plural used singular affixes.
- consonant stems
- heteroclitic stems: r/s
x̌-stems (honorific stems)
Verbs were conjugated for subject, object, aspect, and mood (but not for voice).
- Subject agreement: For each pronoun, and gender in 3rd person
- Aspects: present, preterite, stative
- Moods: indicative, subjunctive, jussive, imperative
- Austronesian alignment, realized with various trigger verb prefixes.
-dei, -woi, -φm, -φi, -φs, -mer, -nter, -kʷer, -ber
-ni, -ri, -mi, -si, -ø, -mek, -nti, -kʷe, -ti
- -tl-, -tlom = agent, instrument, participle
- -ā- = verbalizer from nouns
- -ye-, -i- = verbalizer from adjectives