Windermere

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This article describes Modern Windermere. See Windermere/Classical for Classical Windermere.

Windermere/Wordlist
Tbeach fi mi-brits Dămea
Diese Seite auf Deutsch
דף זה בעברית

Windermere
fi cduay Dămea
Created by IlL, Praimhín
Setting Verse:Tricin
Region Pategia, Bjeheond, Quintlopetl, ...
Native speakers 550 million  (13b0dd)
Language family
Writing system Windermere script
ISO 639-3

Windermere (fi cduay Dămea /fi kduəj dəmeə/; Eevo: a birits Dymée) is a Lakovic language belonging to the Ashanic branch. Modern Windermere arose from the vernacular spoken by settlers from Imperial Wen Dămea in Pategia and Bjeheond. It is also known as Ashanian (e.g. Ntzog Xäd in Hlou, Ásharn /ˈæʃɑːn/ in Shalian) or Tergetian (e.g. døludx Terged in Tseer, tergetosin in Clofabosin) in various Trician languages.

Today, this relatively conservative descendant of Classical Windermere is spoken in the USB, Tumhan, Pategia, and in former Windermere colonies in Txapoalli, whereas in Talma Classical Windermere was replaced with other vernaculars. With 550 million native and L2 speakers, it is the fourth most widely spoken language and the most widely spoken Lakovic language. It forms the Bjeheondian sprachbund with Hlou, Ciêng, Gwnax, and most other Bjeheondian languages.

It is more distantly related to Tseer, Tsrovesh, and Häskä.


External history

Windermere is based on similarities between Hebrew and Mon-Khmer languages, such as final stress, minor syllables and head-initial syntax. Aesthetically it's also inspired by English, Romanian and Tíogall, one of my old Talmic sketches. It was originally created by Praimhín for the Fifth Linguifex Relay.

Todo

Drel ya-rie srüe thăgem ftsüen e łen = Come with me if you want to live

lăchir e Pra haș mül mif brits Angla, chăbec ngie fithnar e tchung croth șaf brits hathbur Pra șän-șän

db dg > dw, gb gd > gw gl, bd bg > bl pg

Ădoath chea thosli șa rie sed. (Dream PST reveal DAT me this) lit. A dream revealed this to me

Diachronics

Phonological history

  • Classical Wdm. /pʰ tʰ kʰ/ become /f θ x/; /f θ/ gain voiced realizations
  • Classical Wdm. reduced vowels ă /ɔ/ and ĭ /ɨ/
  • Breathy vowels become separate vowel phonemes, usually diphthongs.
  • Classical Windermere ts and merged into /ts/, while ł (Basque s in Classical) shifted to /ɬ/

Grammatical history

  • Tense particles instead of older tense inflections, from Hlou influence
  • Loss of the Classical Windermere accusative particle ü

Phonology

Consonants (mosălis'ir)

All dialects have the following consonant phonemes, but their realizations and conditions for allophony differ by accent. Below, the Standard Bjeheondian transcriptions will be given:

Labial
mofăsing
Alveolar
mosăbies
Lateral
molăgoan
Palatal
moyăclech
Velar
moscong
Glottal
motășac
Nasal
mocră'i
m /m/ n /n/ ng /ŋ/
Plosive
bintăptep
voiced
yătger
b /b/ d /d/ g /g/
voiceless
chatger
p /p/ t /t/ c /k/ ' /ʔ/
Affricate
bintsăda
ts /ts~tɕ~tʃ/
Fricative
binchlas
spirant
binthăre
f /v/ th /ð/ ch /χ/
nonspirant
binsăreaf
s /z/ ł /ɬ/ ș /ʃ/ h /h/
Resonant
binnădüech
w /w/ l /l/ y /j/ r /ʁ/

Some dialects like the Rural Fincreaș dialect retain the Classical Windermere as a separate phoneme /tʃ~tʂ/.

/ʔ/ and /h/ are often dropped in casual speech.

Voiceless stops /p t k/ are usually unaspirated [p⁼ t⁼ k⁼]. Voiced stops /b d g/ are fully voiced. Front fricatives /f θ s/ are by default voiced [v ð z]; they only devoice to [f θ s] when followed by an "inherently voiceless" consonant, i.e. one of /p t k ts x h ʔ/. (Thus obstruent voicing assimilation can be said to work like in Slavic languages or Israeli Hebrew.)

/əm ən əl ər/ become [m̩ n̩ l̩ ɐ] in closed unstressed syllables.

Vowels (motrăway)

Front Central Back
unrounded rounded
Close i /i/ ü /y/ u /ʉ/ ua /u/
Near-close ie /ɪ/ üe /ø/
Diphthong e /ae/ o /ao/
Mid ea /ɛ/ ă /ə/ oa /ɔ/
Open ä /æ/ ăr /ɐ/ a /ɒ/
  • /ɒ æ ɛ ɔ/ are [ɒ̝ æ̝ ɛ̝ ɔ̝].
  • In most accents, ir = ier, ür = üer, ur = uar.
  • Stressed ă is used mainly in loans from Tseer.

R-vocalization

/ʁ/ vocalizes to [ɐ] when not before a vowel, as follows:

  • ar = är → [aː]
  • ear → [ɛɐ]
  • er → [eɐ]
  • oar → [ɔɐ]
  • or → [oɐ]
  • ir = ier → [iɐ]
  • ür = üer → [yɐ]
  • ur = uar → [uɐ]
  • Vocalization of R has caused a chain vowel shift in Std. Wdm.:
    • ie üe ue ea oa > [ɪ ø u ɛ̝ ɔ̝]
    • u e o > [ʉ ae ao]
    • a ä > [ɒ̝ æ̝]

Intonation.

Standard Windermere intonation is like Israeli Hebrew except it's more stress-timed.

Stress

Stress is almost always final, but can be non-final in function words.

Phonotactics

Zero and C are the only permitted word-final codas. /g h ʔ/ are prohibited in coda.

Allowed initial clusters in Classical Windermere are similar to Khmer. Here is a list by type of cluster (some clusters may be listed more than once):

  • Cl: pl, tl, cl, bl, dl, gl, fl, thl, chl, sl, tsl, șl
  • Cr: pr, tr, tsr, cr, br, dr, gr, fr, thr, chr, sr, tsr, șr
  • Cm: tm, thm, cm, chm, sm, tsm, șm
  • Cn: fn, cn, chn, sn, tsn, șn
  • Cng: fng, tng, thng, chng, sng, tsng, șng
  • Cw: tw, thw, dw, cw, chw, gw, tsw, sw, łw, tsw, șw
  • XX (two obstruents): pd, pg, ps, pș, ft, fts, fc, tb, tg, thp, thc, cb, cd, cs, cș, chp, cht, chts, tsp, tsc, sp, st, sts, sc, șp, șt, șc

Voiced stops are not allowed to begin minor syllables in roots. This rule does not apply to proper names such as Dămea.

Accents

Main article: Windermere/Accents

Orthography

Windermere uses two different scripts based on the region. Wen Dămea uses the Talman script (lăchier Talma), and Bjeheond, Tumhan, and Pategia use the Bjeheondian script (lăchier Bichănd).

Talman Windermere

This script is the one used in the Mărotłite sacred texts and other Classical Windermere texts. It descends from Talmic runes and is thus a sister of the Talmic alphabet, which is used for Talmic languages.

Consonants

Consonants have capital and lowercase forms. Names and extremely respectful pronouns are written in all caps.

  • Ϫϫ Շչ Ɑᶑ Ѡϙ Ғғ Ѵѵ Ƌժ Ƨƨ ſʗ = p b f t d th c g ch
  • Ɨɟ ʢє Ϯ₼ = m n ng
  • Ϟɥ Ɔɔ Պɱ Պ̃ɱ̃ Ʌʎ = s ł ts tł ș
  • Էէ Ӿӿ Գƪ Քƍ Ֆⱷ Пп = r w y h l ʔ

The alphabetical order for the consonant letters is:

R D F L M G C B S Ł Ș Y NG T N TH P CH H W (rieth, däl, fieth, lear, mear, goal, cam, boal, sam, ła, șănat, yam, ngoath, trop, nang, thop, pa, cha, hieth, wir)

rădäf = alphabet

Vowels

The vowel signs are placed to the right of the consonant letter.

  • · : ; ı › ˫ ⸗ƍ ⸗ = ă u ü i o e ä a; :ƍ ;ƍ ıƍ ›ƍ ˫ƍ = ua üe ie oa ea

Punctuation

Bjeheondian Windermere

Parts of speech

Nouns

There are two articles: the definite article fi, from the distal demonstrative fi, and the specific article se (m), from the proximal demonstrative se. Indefinite nonspecific nouns do not take an article. The English definite article, and some unpreceded nouns such as society, man (humanity), and life, correspond closely to the Windermere definite article, but the English indefinite article can be translated into either Windermere indefinite nouns or specific nouns depending on context.

  • indefinite: Rüe șa rie imyar! = "Give me some flowers! (any flowers, I don't care what flowers they are)"
  • specific: Rüe șa rie se imyar! = "Give me some flowers! (specific ones I have in mind)"
    • This command would probably be met with Imyar ra? "What flowers?".
  • definite: Rüe șa rie fi imyar! = "Give me the flowers! (you and I both know what flowers)"

The articles contract with a preceding preposition such as mi 'in, at' and șa 'to, for': for example, mis, mif and șas, șaf. Before a sibilant (resp. labial), forms such as mise (resp. mifi) are used.

Pronouns

Modern Windermere have pronouns similar to Classical Windermere, but slightly restructured: it lost the feminine plural pronouns and added the impersonal and polite pronouns.

I thou (m.) thou (f.) you (polite) he she we (exc.) we (inc.) you (pl.) they (an.) impersonal
Nominative rie łen łes Pra in is tsa bang łănam ănam tung

The impersonal pronoun tung (from tăchung 'some') can be used instead of a passive voice. In fact it's more general purpose than the passive voice which can only be used to turn direct objects into subjects. As in English, the impersonal may be used to state general commands, especially prohibitions:

Tung die lieb sä șa ngud mi ădoac tsrăboł.
IMPERS NEG put fire DAT burn LOC room closed
You don't let fire burn in a closed room.

Impra is an obsolete plural form of Pra; nowadays Pra is used regardless of number.

Łănam (capitalized in the native script) is used as a very respectful 2nd person pronoun, restricted to addressing royalty and divine figures.

rie 'I' can informally be used as an impersonal pronoun.

Inanimates use the demonstrative fid (plural imfid).

The gendered demonstratives sen/ses 'this man/this woman' and fin/fis 'that man/that woman' are literary.

Gender-neutral neopronouns in the 2sg informal and 3sg are considered pretty much necessary because singular łănam already has a function as an archaic polite pronoun. łech/łeth/łel (2sg informal) and ich/ith/il (3sg) but there is no universally accepted standard yet. People may opt to use no pronoun, or be referred to as "fi croth fid" (that person).

Demonstratives

TODO: Correlatives table

  • this: __ se (adnominal); sed (pronominal), pl. imsed
  • that: __ fi (adnominal); fid (pronominal), pl. imfid
  • here: rădun se, dunse
  • there: rădun fi, dumfi
  • who: ășac ra, șara
  • what: ra
  • where: rădun ra, dura
  • when: ngith ra, ngithra
  • how: tănsü ra; tăra
  • why: fănäl ra, fnăra
  • all: tsor (preposed)
  • many: mea (preposed)
  • some: tăchung (preposed)
  • few: łüp (preposed)
  • any: prang (preposed)
  • other: nătha

Verbs

Verbs are not conjugated, but are used with tense particles.

Imperatives:

  • Familiar (both sg and pl): Tsrin! 'Eat!'
    • A little softened: tsrin e łen/łes/łănam! 'Why not eat?'
  • Polite: Tsrin e Pra!
  • Very polite: Tsrin e Łănam!
  • Cohortative: Tsrin e bang! (Let's eat!)

Archaic style may use the vocative particle: Hay tsrin....

Negative imperatives are formed with taș:

  • Taș hămoch fi thcür mi ăcnas hălut! = Don't climb too high on the ladder!
  • Taș ămpaw e łen fi ădoac! = Don't you leave the room!

Adjectives

The copula mot is not used with adjectives. For example, 'The man is strong' = Fi noaf ngăwes.

The comparative is formed with rech + adjective and the superlative is formed with hă'et + adjective.

  • to = good
  • rech to = better
  • hă'et to = best

The word for 'than' is ăngi 'surpass', and rech is not necessary when ăngi is used. Colloquially the similar-sounding ngie 'like' may be used instead.

For comparing two verbs or clauses, you need to use ăngi fid moang or ăngi foang, lit. 'than that which':

Bloy Etingof chea chmi hoth rech thăfiet ăngi foang rie chea fnga thărișür ya in.
(*ăngi rie chea fnga thișür ya in)
Soon E. PST run COMP PROG fast surpass that_which 1SG PST can keep_up with 3SG
Soon Etingof was running faster than I could keep up with.

There are no imperatives for adjectives; one uses ieng 'do', căfol 'become', or ămtüs 'remain' with the adjective depending on the situation. For example:

  • Ieng cdeal! (familiar) or Ieng e Pra cdeal! (polite) = Be bold! (lit. do boldly) to make a wish that the addressee should act boldly. This is the most neutral imperative.
  • Căfol cdeal! implies that the listener is not bold now and should be.
  • Ămtüs cdeal! should be obvious: "stay bold".

TAM particles

  • chmi (or VERB VERB) = progressive
  • chea = preterite
  • chea ftoal = 'used to'
  • chea chmi = past progressive
  • fa = perfect
  • chea fa = past perfect
  • per = future
  • per chmi = future progressive
  • hos = conditional
  • fnga = can
  • poar = like to
  • thăgem = want to
  • pdar = must

Determiners

  • swoch fi X = the very X

Conjunctions

  • te = and
  • uy = xor
  • soas = or (either one of two)
  • seam = but (however)
  • chăbec = (higher register) however
  • ăyut = but (rather)
  • łüch șa = in order to
  • hăbra = therefore
  • pilang = because
    • ło(ng) = (high register) because
  • ătuach nga = although
    • ya(ng) = (high register) although
  • șang, łüch șa(ng) = so that
  • moang = relativizer
  • nga = complementizer
  • tăngap (nga) = before
  • łăgie (nga) = after
  • swe/sweng = when, while
  • șăfongtas nga = as long as
  • mi tstoal nga = as soon as
  • nüng = until
  • tă'iep = on the other hand
  • sach = also

Prepositions

  • moang: of (optional)
  • mi: locative; in, at
  • ya: with
  • șa: to, for
  • ngie: like, as
  • fa: ablative
  • tsăbi: without
  • fe: by (passive)
  • ło: on, about
  • cde (higher register): about, concerning
  • tăngap: before
  • woach: behind
  • łăgie: after
  • bar: through
  • ștal: along
  • ngie prăwim: according to
  • nüng = until, up to
    • häb = (high register synonym of nüng)
    • fa... nüng... = from... to/through...
  • măceaf = towards (a person)
  • mi hoath = by means of
  • mi rădun = instead of
  • liștew = over, instead of
  • năguł = above
  • fă'üet = under
  • șăbad = below

Auxiliaries

  • hac = passive
  • dur = come to
  • cișloch = need only
  • ithris = to go up
  • psuy = to go down
  • thușnoa = be sure to
  • ruay hălșab = be permitted to

Adverbs of location

  • liștew = over
  • năguł = above
  • fă'üet = under
  • șăbad = below
  • ithris = up
  • psuy = down
  • mif ey = on the side
  • săfea te wăgie (from *soXpe de woXgi) = back and forth, to and fro

Adverbs of time

  • hăsüs = yet, still
    • die ... hăsüs = not anymore (NOT "not yet")
  • lișnap = not yet
  • smaw X = every X/by the X where X = time
    • smaw tsoa/fnüd/tsănga/len = every morning/day/evening/night
    • smaw roac = from time to time, every now and then
  • ngieș = already
  • bloy = soon
  • łăduy = again

Adverbs of emphasis

  • torech = rather
  • yic = only
  • ămic fi X, swoch fi X = (this) very X
  • ătuach = even
    • comes before negative: Ătuach die thăgem mălitchow ef chäth fi. 'That child doesn't even want to communicate.'
  • tămo = very, very much, greatly
    • Is chea dur thușrăber fa in tămo. = She came to be very resentful of him.
  • tsor łăngü = at all, anyway
  • eth = it does, doesn't it?

Adverbs of quantity

  • șămea = a lot of, much (number or quantity)
    • In lăchir șămea ło hălwier-prăcăbäs. = He writes about sociology a lot.
  • łüp = a little
    • tăfad = little, only a little
  • ngie tlieb = about, approximately
  • rech șămea = more
    • rech tăfad = less
  • ămac = enough
  • mi thuyut = especially
  • răngi = (verb) too much, too (adj, adv)
    • răngi mea = too much

Syntax

SVO, VSO in subordinate clauses with the subject marked with e; but subordinate clauses are SVO when marked with the complementizer nga

NAdj, NGen, NRel, prepositions

Rie chmi brits cdes că'üs tes tsăctsoc.
1SG PROG speak about-SPEC love and-SPEC hate
I speak of love and hate.
Fi rüech chmi tsrin se troas.
DEF bird PROG eat SPEC seed
The bird is eating a seed.

Existence

Existence is indicated using ruay 'to have':

Chea ruay rath hăngüs fa yeap.
There were two people outside.

Questions

Modern Windermere is wh-in-situ, unlike Classical Windermere.

Time clauses

  • swe = "while" but it takes VSO: swe căwdul ef imfnüd ("as the days go by")
  • for SVO use sweng: sweng fi imfnüd căwdul

Verb phrase

Verb phrases are usually of the form:

TENSE MARKER + NEGATION + AUXILIARY + VERB + pronominal oblique object + direct objects + nominal oblique object

Hăyad chea rüe tsăstsus șa Inthar, seam in chea die făntsüc chămpüe fid.
H. PST give riddle to I. but he PST NEG succeed untangle that_noun
Hăyad gave Inthar a riddle, but he couldn't solve it.

Inversion

SVO clauses are inverted to VSO clauses after certain conjunctions. In a VSO clause the particle e must precede the subject.

Independent VSO clauses have hortative or optative meanings:

Plachtom e chwep!
appear NOM light
Let there be light!

The more... the more...

Rie die clăduang tsäl fa foang chmi nătsap. Hoth-hoth rie, căfol-căfol rie blaw.
1SG not receive hint from that_which PROG happen. run-run 1SG, become-become 1SG fat.
I don't get what's going on. The more I run, the fatter I get.

Relative clauses

moang is the relativizer. It is oftne dropped when the relative clause is short (most often with adjectives).

When the head becomes an oblique object, no resumptive pronoun is used.

English what-clauses are translated with fid moang... foang....

This is also used to translate the [adjective] one in English:

Łes tsădwer ăyied ra, foang sim uy foang pday?
2SG.F choose box INTERR, that_which red xor that_which blue
Which box do you choose, the red one or the blue one?

Exclamations

As in most Talman languages, exclamations of the form 'how...!' usually use the vocative particle ha or hay, in the construction ha(y) fi "ADJ-ness" (= 'how ADJ/ADV...') or ha(y) foang [clause] (= 'how [clause]/how much...').

Ha fi hălfnărnach fi moșiew! Ha foang is fnga sătsiet bang!
VOC DEF NMLZ-awful DEF nature! VOC that_which she can teach we.INC!
How terrible nature is! How much she can teach us! (lit. O the terribleness of nature! O that which she can teach us!)
Hay fi hălwier moang in lăleș mi yăgom!
VOC DEF beauty REL he play_an_instrument LOC zither
How beautifully he plays the zither!

Vocabulary

Modern Windermere contains more Talmic and Hlou-Shum loanwords than Classical Windermere; even derivational affixes have been borrowed. In modern times, many Eevo loans are entering the language, to the dismay of purists.

Layers

  • inherited Windermere (including Talmic loans)
  • Tseer loans
  • Hlou-Shum loans
  • other miscellaneous loans (from Häskä, Eevo etc.)
  • Ancient and Classical Windermere reborrowings
  • recent Eevo loans

Tseero-Windermere

Note: The spellings do not approximate Classical Tseer with Modern Windermere but with Classical Windermere.

Vowels: i u e ø o a ii uu ee øø oo aa -> i u e ö o a iN uN eN öN oN aN (N assimilates to the appropriate nasal before stops/spirants, is -ng otherwise)

Consonants: m n ng -b t/-d tx ts th k/-g b d g f x s kh h -v -ð w l r y -> m n ng p t t ts ts t c b d g f s ș ch h b d w l r y

Derivation

Part-of-speech changing affixes

  • TODO: another nominalizer?
  • i = nominalizer for verbs
  • bin- = nominalizer for verbs
  • hăl- = nominalizer for adjectives
  • să- = nominalizer
  • ng = infix forming place nouns
  • sngeaf 'world, Tricin' < seaf 'walk, go'
  • c = infix forming instruments from verbs
  • di- = negation
  • cha- = -less
  • ing- = verbalizer
  • mo- (+ voicing of plosives) = adjectivizer
  • = verbalizer (how productive?)
  • yă- = adjectivizer
  • nu- = agentive (Classical Windermere; and productive to an extent in Modern Windermere)
  • pa- = patientive (from Old Windermere *p + *ha)
  • năr, măr = a result/state (which becomes another adjectivizer?)
  • Că(syllable S) -> Că(S reduced)(S) = diminutive
    • yar = flower > yăryar 'little flower'
  • ‹ră› = patient noun
  • pră- = patient noun, -ee
  • ha- = -able, able to [intransitive verb]
  • -om = augmentative
  • -ith = diminutive

"Trigger" verb affixes

The "trigger" infixes usually derive verbs from other verbs. These were originally trigger affixes but had become derivational affixes to derive verbs by Classical Windermere times.

  • ‹ăn/ăng› = Applicative trigger
  • ‹ith› = Locative trigger
  • ‹ăw› = Instrumental trigger
  • ‹ăfong› = Destination trigger
    • răfongüe 'to endow' < rüe 'to give'
  • ‹ălis› = Comitative trigger
  • ‹ăm› = Source/cause trigger
  • ‹ăchem› = Benefactive/purpose trigger
  • ‹ărea› = Malefactive trigger

Lexical aspect affixes

Proto-Lakovic aspects became derivational already in Classical Windermere, analogous to how PIE aspects became lexical in daughter IE languages. This mirrors the development in other Talman Lakovic languages but Windermere has been the most heavily affected.

Reduplicant uses 1st consonant (F) or last consonant (L)

  • perfective = em-
  • momentane = pla-
  • intensive/excessive = incopyfixation of L
  • distributive ("X widely, affecting many objects") = eNFă-
  • inchoative/inceptive = osăL-
  • graduative = tăFa-

Concatenation

Head-initial concatenation is often used to derive expressions that would correspond to words in English. Concatenated expressions are hyphenated, e.g. hălwier-chne 'mathematics' (lit. 'beauty of ideal/order').

The resulting meaning from concatenation is not always entirely predictable:

  • tar-siet (lit. 'house of letter (character)') means 'school'.
  • șän-fănaw (lit. 'word of truth') means 'wake-up call' (but it's more formal).

Archaic words also appear as cranberry morphemes in some concatenated expressions. For example, sămeath-păchnay, meaning 'patriotism', literally means "honoring the king", where sămeath means 'to honor, to revere' in archaic Windermere.

Common concatenated morphemes are:

  • tar = places (lit. 'house of')
  • hălwier = '-logy' (lit. 'beauty of')
    • This is a calque from the same usage of tadaakh 'beauty' in Tseer.
  • wang = 'matter, affairs'
  • ngoth = 'manner, way'
  • sces = 'style of, à la'
  • ăma = 'proto, ur-' (lit. 'mother of')
  • tam = 'full of, -ive, -ful'

Sample texts

Newton's Laws

I: Tsi'eth ămtüs mi hăllithăhuł soas mi hăltsăliet rădoan, srüe die tłith'ach e sănguac ło fid.

object remain LOC NOMZ-stationary or LOC NOMZ-speed constant, if not act NOM force on that_PRON

I: An object stays at rest, or at a constant speed, unless a force acts on it.

II: Fi ălcifol ło fi hălpășad moang fteach fid sibaganangch mif sănguac moang tung șithcats șafi fteach; te fi ălcifol ișrom șawim fi șădong glan moang tung șithcats fi sănguac yătăngap ło fid.

DEF <VN>change on DEF STAT-ACT-move of body that_PRON proportional LOC-DEF force REL IMPERS apply DAT-DEF body; and the <VN>change occur along DEF line straight REL IMPERS apply DEF force aforementioned on that_PRON

II: The change in the momentum of a body is proportional to the force applied to the body; and the change occurs along the straight line on which that force is applied.

III: Tsor binșithcats ruay se binșithcats-căräng thür.

all action have SPEC action-against equal

III: Every action has an equal and opposite reaction.

You are not obligated to complete the work, but...

Łen die nămărłof şa cithloch se thibur, tă'iep łen die pluam șa măreado fid. (Mișna, Pircey Abot 2’21”)
2SG.M NEG obligated to complete SPEC work, but_also 2SG.M NEG free to abandon DEM_DIST
You are not obligated to complete the work, but neither are you free to abandon it. (Mishnah, Pirkei Avot 2:21)

Inge

Bang fa bin'ătsoal fi lăhoal fi sngeaf imtriem, te fa păfonglis fi imșășur bang ya tsăngua te gow mi thusăyüer chngăfi, häb nga tsip crirath, päd fnga frel e nam săwim, ănam hos ristey fi chlăpsür mi wă'ua croth.

1PL.IN PERF enslave DEF rest DEF world PL-animal, and PERF treat DEF PL-cousins 1PL.IN with fur and feather ADV evil so_much, until COMP without doubt, if_counterfactual POT transmit NOM 3PL.AN story, 3PL.AN COND imagine DEF villain in form human_being.

"Ne-Zim"

Srüe ruay e croth patsrin, te di ruay ef păcrit rus, te rüe e sed șa fid, yic ya sămirüe łithad tsip neab te tămiseath e fid swoch, lea mot bintănse yășithbech? Tieth, fid mot mitse paw yătithun moang binłăcthie! Thăbur ef croth ngie nuthbur papluas mi-thäș, șang fid plang łos imsrup te thusămpey moang thăprea. To, fi mocănłin Pra lea chithud srüe ngil e rie "Seth" mi łäm "croth"? - Ne-Sim

From Hamlet

Șa ftsüen uy șa răchta, sed mot eth fi binbiets.
To live or to die, this.PRON COP exactly DEF question
To be or not to be, that is the question.

(This line is in the Windermere alexandrine)

From the Internationale

Ămflü, hay tsor pachărea'i fi sngeaf!
arise, VOC all PAT-scorn DEF world
Arise, all ye scorned ones of the world!

UDHR

Binhithma lăchpaș moang fi imłin croth

Nicüf tăche

Tsor croth fa ășeal pluam te thür mis hăltsăbas tes imłin. Tung răfongüe ănam yas hălpăthin tes hălslith'a, te pdar thușnoa e nam tănse fidoan măceaf nătha mis șăgor hălchăsräf.

all human PERF be_born free and equal in-SPEC dignity and-SPEC PL-right. IMPERS endow 3PL with-SPEC reason and-SPEC conscience, and must make_sure NOM 3PL act one towards other in-SPEC spirit ABST-fellow

(Mategian; Bjeheondian) [ts̠or̥ kʰr̥oð vä ʔɘˈʂeəl pʰluəm tʰe ðyr mis hlˈtsəbäs tʰes ʔimˈɬin ‖ ʔɘnäm häk rɘvoˈŋyə jäs̠ hlpɘˈðin tʰes̠ hls̠liθˈʔa, tʰe pʰɘdar ðuʃˈnoə ʔe näm tʰnze viˈdoən mɘˈkʰeəv nɘˈðä mis̠ ʂəˈɣor̥ hlxɘzˈræf]

(Wen Dămea) [tso̞:r kʰr̥o̞:ð fä əˈʃeːɤˁ pʰχˁuəm tʰe̞ θy:r mis hɤˁˈtsɑ:s tʰe̞s imˈɬi:n ‖ ənä:m häk rəvo̞ˈŋyə jäs hɤˁpəˈðin tʰe̞s hɤˁsʁˁiθˈʔa, tʰe̞ pʰta:r θuʃˈnoə ʔe̞ nä:m tʰənse̞: fiˈdoən məˈkʰeəv nəˈðä: mis ʃko̞:r hɤˁxəzˈre:v]

The Round Table

This passage is from the Imthumitil Păchlac, a retranslation of the Imθumăytil into Modern Windermere by Yăchef Clay.

Modern Wdm.

Mi ngith doan chea chmi dur es tach imchäth mis mogor litheath. Fi Pida Brăwied chea sray bintăbiets: "Łănam mot mea ra hăngüs?"

Swe chea chmi chnung e müets imchäth hăsüs, se doan chäth chea plawăsma: "Șrüch stiw! Ruay mi tsum immognas tach dunse, immălin thaf müets, imchustiw liew, imchusmäch thaf müets, imchumüets tach, te doan imchutach."

Prăyon nga fi Pida Brăwied chea tăbiets: "Wăhang, hos ruay mea ra hăngüs, srüe placäp e do croth hiboath șaf ti'uar?"

Ăfifay chea că'aw e fid: "Lea sed die placănărnga, fi Pida? Bang ruay tsor ti'uar palüc, sach se făbeang imti'uar nătha yaf croth mălem!"

Fi Pida chea sngiem șaf chäth mi ngil, "Fi chäth se eth ruay hăltsrüeng te thăpal fănaw."

Original (Classical Wdm.)

Ngiθ dur se taχ χaaθ mogor. Tăbiits φin Pĭda Brăwiid: "Măra łĭnam?"

Mi-ăngnung căχθaaθ năθa emrĭtsal sen doon: Șrüχ te-stiw: taχ mognas, θaφ te-müüts θraaφ, liiw stăliw, θaφ te-müüts mălsaaχ, taχ mălüüts, doon tălaχ."

Tăbiits φin Pĭda Brăwiid: "Ǎna mee ra, srüü hĭdeen croθ năθa?"

Eφθooc χaaθ, "Op cănga, φin Pida: tsor pădiiχ φnărtaang, te ămsaχ păχwădiiχ năθa ya φin croθ φi!"

Esngiim φin Pĭda Brăwiid șa φin χaaθ șa-ngil, "Ăruuy șa-χaaθ ses tsărüüng te sen θăpal φănaw φănaw."

English

Once, six children were in a round table. Master Brăwied asked them a question: "How many people are you?"

While five children were still counting, one child called out: "Sixty-three! 6 individuals, 15 teams of two, 20 teams of 3, 15 teams of 4, 6 teams of 5, and one team of 6."

Then Master Brăwied asked: "Well then, how many people will be there if another person joins the group?"

The child replied: "Isn't it obvious, Master? We'll have all of the old teams, as well as another set of teams with the new person!"

The Master praised the child, saying, "This child has wisdom and understanding indeed."


Warming Up to You

[...]
Tuach ya snar nga łen per răchta mi neab
Rie pănea mi ses hălsieth łen,
Tsin cămșuth es s­ădoan hălsieth se hălngărătiew –
Fi imcnul hălsnar;
Fin tslües, sem fa tănet e łen mif căngtseth se
Te per ăloth ris șa tăgoa.

Gloss:
even with know COMP 2SG.M FUT die LOC end
1SG dwell LOC-SP warmth 2SG.M
because nurture NOM-DEF same warmth SP curiosity
DEF PL-leaf knowledge
DEF garden REL PERF plant NOM 2SG.M LOC-DEF plot_of_land this
and FUT keep up DAT eternity

Poetry

Rhyme

Rhyming works similarly to English (two words rhyme if rimes agree).

Meter

A literary Windermere meter is determined by

  • The number of syllables in a line (which might alternate);
  • A sequence of accentual feet making up each line (usually anapaests and iambs, with the occasional trochee);
  • Zero or more caesurae in each line.

The most common meter in literary verse by far is the anapestic tetrameter: (u)uSuuSuuSuuS. It is also used in the King Sămtsay Song, the Windermere national anthem.

Iambic meters and meters that use a combination of iambs and anapests are also used. An iambic meter that goes back to Classical Windermere verse is the chinung tălach ('hexad meter', more literally 'hexad count'), a form of alexandrine where each line consists of two iambic trimeter hemistichs separated by a caesura. The first of each group of three feet may occasionally be a trochee.

Fantasy author Srăga Tsayfuan used a variety of meters for the poetry in his novels. For example, he uses the alexandrine and other "Classical" meters to render Elvish poetry:

Mi seaf imfnüd se doach te tsmüng ăbüch mosrel,
Tes tsor hălpduth șăm'it — lăta, chnet fa mi yem!
Rănoat ef loc Dămath, dicleap yaf imhăcwel;
Doar bang, yăsnar, tămnüth, mi sngom se chwep păhem.
— faf chnur Dsüslăf

Gloss:
LOC walk PL-day SP summer and meet wind wintry,
and all hope vanish — look ray from afar
spin_intransitive NOM-DEF wheel fortune, indifferent with-DEF PL-sweat;
yet 1PL.IN, skillful, work_hard, in seek SP light early_morning

Paraphrase:
As summer days trudge on, and meet the winter soil,
And all hope comes to naught — light shines from far away.
Let Fortune turn her wheel, oblivious to our toil;
We skilled ones persevere and seek the light of day.
— from Dzüsləf's Song

Some other meters are:

  • Free verse
  • Rhyming prose, like poetic sections of the Imθumăytil