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This article describes Modern Windermere. See Windermere/Classical for Classical Windermere and Windermere/Middle for Middle Windermere.

Windermere/Swadesh list
218 sample sentences
Tbeach fi mi-brits Dămea
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fi cduay Dămea
Created by IlL, Praimhín
Setting Verse:Tricin
Region Talma, Pategia, Bjeheond, Quintlopetl
Native speakers 270 million  (13b0dd)
Language family
Writing system Windermere script
ISO 639-3

Modern Windermere (fi cduay Dămea) arose from the vernacular of Imperial Windermere settlers in Pategia and Bjeheond. It is known as Ashanian (e.g. Ntzog Xäd in Hlou, Ásharn /ˈæʃɑːn/ in Shalian) or Tergetian (e.g. døludx Terged in Tseer, tergetosin in Clofabosin) in some other Trician languages. Today Windermere is widespread in Bjeheond and Talma, being spoken in the USB, Tumhan, Pategia, Wen Dămea, and in former Windermere colonies in Txapoalli; with 270 million native speakers, it is the fifth most widely spoken native language and the most widely spoken Lakovic language.

In Talma, Modern Windermere forms a dialect continuum with other descendants of Classical Windermere.

External History

Windermere is a conlang based on similarities between Hebrew and Mon-Khmer languages, such as final stress, minor syllables and overall head-initial syntax. Aesthetically it's also inspired by English, Romanian and Tíogall, one of my old Talmic sketches. It was originally created by Praimhín for the Fifth Linguifex Relay.


Accents in Windermere

  • Fincreaș
  • Rural Fincreaș
  • Standard Mategian
  • Standard Wen Dămea
  • Other Wen Dămea accents
    • Sătmaș
    • Chăloa
    • Prucüew

Some accent should have th = Basque z, s = Basque s

Drel ya-rie srüe thăgem ftsüen e łen = Come with me if you want to live

lăchir e pra haș mül mif brits Angla, chăbec ngie fithnar e tchung croth șaf brits hathbur pra șän-șän

or maybe they become other clusters like db dg > dw, gb gd > gw gl, bd bg > bl pg


Phonological history

  • In Talman Windermere, ə > 0 after aspirated consonants and fricatives. This makes the voicing alternation in the Classical Wdm. spirants f and th phonemic.
  • l > ʟ in the Wen Dămea dialect
  • Classical Windermere *ts and *tł merged into "ts", while ł shifted to /ɬ/

Grammatical history

  • Aspect largely becomes a derivational device, cf. the development of PIE aspects
  • Tense particles, from Hlou influence



Labial Alveolar Lateral Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m /m/ n /n/ ng /ŋ/
Plosive voiced b /b/ d /d/ g /g/
voiceless p /p/ t /t/ c /k/ ' /ʔ/
Affricate ts /ts/
Fricative spirant f /f~v/ th /θ~ð/ ch /x/
nonspirant s /s~z/ ł /ɬ/ ș /ʃ/ h /h/
Resonant w /w/ r /r/ l /l~ʟ/ y /j/

Voiceless plosives are aspirated in all dialects unless word-final or following a fricative. However the aspiration tends to be weaker in preinitial syllables.

/ʔ/ and /h/ are often dropped in casual speech.


In Talman Windermere:

Front Central Back
unrounded rounded
Close i /i/ ü /y/ [ɨ] u /u/
Near-close ie /iə/ üe /yə/ ua /uə/
Close-mid e /e/ ă /ə/ o /o/
Open-mid ea /eə/; ä /ɛ~e/ oa /oə/
Open a /ɐ/


Stress is almost always final, but can be non-final in function words.


Zero and C are the only permitted word-final codas. /g h ʔ/ are prohibited in coda.

Allowed initial clusters in Classical Windermere are similar to Khmer. Here is a list by type of cluster (some clusters may be listed more than once):

  • Cl: pl, tl, cl, bl, dl, gl, fl, thl, chl, sl, tsl, șl, wl
  • Cr: pr, tr, tsr, cr, br, dr, gr, fr, thr, chr, sr, tsr, șr, wr
  • Cm: tm, thm, cm, chm, sm, tsm, șm
  • Cn: fn, cn, chn, sn, tsn, șn
  • Cng: fng, tng, thng, chng, sng, tsng, șng
  • Cw: tw, thw, dw, cw, chw, gw, tsw, sw, łw, tsw, șw
  • XX (two obstruents): pd, pg, ps, pș, ft, fts, fc, tb, tg, thp, thc, cb, cd, cs, cș, chp, cht, chts, tsp, tsc, sp, st, sts, sc, șp, șt, șc

Voiced stops are not allowed to begin minor syllables in roots. This rule does not apply to proper names.


Main article: Windermere/Accents


Talman Windermere


Consonants have capital and lowercase forms. Names and extremely respectful pronouns are written in all caps.

  • Ϫϫ Շչ Ɑᶑ Ѡϙ Ғғ Ѵѵ Ƌժ Ƨƨ ſʗ = p b f t d th c g ch
  • Ɨɟ ʢє Ϯ₼ = m n ng
  • Ϟɥ Ɔɔ Պɱ Պ̃ɱ̃ Ʌʎ = s ł ts tł ș
  • Էէ Ӿӿ Գƪ Քƍ Ֆⱷ Пп = r w y h l ʔ

Alphabetical order:

rieth, däl, fieth, lear, mear, goal, cam, boal, sam, ła, șănat, yam, ngoath, trop, nang, thop, pa, cha, hieth, wir

rădaf = alphabet


The vowel signs are placed to the right of the consonant letter.

  • · : ; ı › ˫ ⸗ƍ ⸗ = ă u ü i o e ä a; :ƍ ;ƍ ıƍ ›ƍ ˫ƍ = ua üe ie oa ea


Parts of speech


There are two articles: the definite article fi (from the distal demonstrative fi) and the specific article se (from the proximal demonstrative se). The English definite article, and some unpreceded nouns such as society, man, and life, correspond closely to the Windermere definite article, but the English indefinite article can be translated into either Windermere indefinite nouns or specific nouns depending on context.

  • indefinite: Rüe șa rie imyar! = "Give me some flowers! (any flowers, I don't care what flowers they are)"
  • specific: Rüe șa rie se imyar! = "Give me some flowers! (specific ones I have in mind)"
    • This command would probably be met with Imyar ra? "What flowers?".
  • definite: Rüe șa rie fi imyar! = "Give me the flowers! (you and I both know what flowers)"

The specific article contracts with a preceding preposition such as mi 'in, at' and șa 'to, for': for example, mis, mif and șas, șaf. Before a sibilant resp. /f/, forms such as mise and mifi are used.


Prepositions are listed in the Lexicon.


I thou (m.) thou (f.) thou (formal) he she we (exc.) we (inc.) you (pl.) you (pl. formal) they (an.)
Nominative rie łen łes Pra in is tsa bang łănam Impra ănam

Łănam (capitalized in the native script) is used as a very respectful 2nd person pronoun, restricted to addressing royalty and divine figures.

rie 'I' can be used as an impersonal pronoun.

Inanimates use the demonstrative fid (plural imfid).

The gendered demonstratives sen/ses 'this man/this woman' and fin/fis 'that man/that woman' are literary.


  • this: __ se (adnominal); sed (pronominal), pl. imsed
  • that: __ fi (adnominal); fid (pronominal), pl. imfid
  • here: rădun se, dunse
  • there: rădun fi, dumfi
  • who: ășac ra, șara
  • what: ra (in the sense of which), mül ra (in the sense of which thing)
  • where: rădun ra, dura
  • when: ngith ra, ngithra
  • how: tănsü ra; tăra
  • why: fănäl ra, fnăra
  • all: tsor (preposed)
  • many: mea (preposed)
  • some: tăchung (preposed)
  • few: łüp (preposed)
  • any: prang (preposed)
  • other: nătha


Verbs are not conjugated, but are used with tense particles.


  • Familiar (both sg and pl): Tsrin! (Eat!)
    • A little rude: tsrin e łen/łes/łănam
  • Polite sg: Tsrin e Pra!
  • Polite pl: Tsrin e Impra!
  • Very polite: Tsrin e Łănam!
  • Cohortative: Tsrin e bang! (Let's eat!)

Negative imperatives are formed with taș:

  • Taș hămoch fi thcür mi ăcnas hălut! = Don't climb too high on the ladder!
  • Taș ămpaw e łen! = Don't you leave!


Copulas are NOT used with adjectives. For example, 'The man is strong' = Fi noaf ngăwes.

The comparative is formed with rech + adjective and the superlative is formed with hă'et + adjective.

  • to = good
  • rech to = better
  • hă'et to = best

There are no imperatives for adjectives; one uses ieng 'do', căfol 'become', or ămtüs 'remain' with the adjective depending on the situation. For example:

  • Ieng cdeal! (familiar) or Ieng e Pra cdeal! (polite) = Be bold! (lit. do boldly) to make a wish that the addressee should act boldly. This is the most neutral imperative.
  • Căfol cdeal! implies that the listener is not bold now and should be.
  • Ămtüs cdeal! should be obvious: "stay bold".

Pre-verbal particles

  • chmi = progressive
  • chea = preterite
  • peng = future
  • tso = past progressive
  • fa = perfect
  • chea fa = past perfect etc.
  • peng chmi = future progressive
  • hos = conditional
  • thăgem = desiderative (want to)
  • analytic constructions for other aspects like inchoative/inceptive, frequentative, telic ...?

Other particles

  • eth = it does, doesn't it?


SVO; VSO in subordinate clauses with the subject marked with e; but subordinate clauses are SVO when marked with the complementizer nga

Rie chmi brits cdes că'üs tes tsăctsoc.
1SG PROG speak about-SPEC love and-SPEC hate
I speak of love and hate.
Fi rüech chmi tsrin se troas.
DEF bird PROG eat SPEC seed
The bird is eating a seed.

Time clauses

  • swe = "while" but it takes VSO: swe căwdul ef imfnüd ("as the days go by")
  • for SVO use sweng: sweng fi imfnüd căwdul


SVO clauses are inverted to VSO clauses after certain conjunctions. In a VSO clause the particle e must precede the subject.

Independent VSO clauses have hortative or optative meanings:

Plachtom e chwep!
appear NOM light
Let there be light!


Modern Windermere contains more Talmic and Hlou-Shum loanwords than Classical Windermere; even derivational affixes have been borrowed. In modern times, many Eevo loans are entering the language.


  • inherited Windermere (including Talmic loans)
  • Tseezh loans
  • Hlou-Shum loans
  • other miscellaneous loans (from Häskä, Eevo etc.)
  • Classical Windermere reborrowings
  • recent Eevo loans


  • TODO: another nominalizer?
  • i = nominalizer for verbs
  • bin- = nominalizer for verbs
  • hăl- = nominalizer for adjectives
  • să- = nominalizer
  • ng = infix forming place nouns
    • sngeaf 'world, Tricin' < seaf 'walk, go'
  • di- = negation
  • cha- = -less
  • ing- = verbalizer
  • mo- (+ voicing of plosives) = adjectivizer
  • = verbalizer (how productive?)
  • yă- = adjectivizer
  • nu- = agentive (Classical Windermere; and productive to an extent in Modern Windermere)
  • pa- = patientive (from Old Windermere *p + *ha)
  • năr, măr = a result/state (which becomes another adjectivizer?)
  • Că(syllable S) -> Că(S reduced)(S) = diminutive
    • yar = flower > yăryar 'little flower'
  • ‹ră› = patient noun
  • pră- = patient noun, -ee

"Trigger" verb affixes

These were originally trigger affixes but had become derivational affixes to derive verbs by Classical Windermere times.

  • ‹ăn/ăng› = Applicative trigger
  • ‹ith› = Locative trigger
  • ‹ăw› = Instrumental trigger
  • ‹ăfong› = Destination trigger
    • răfongüe 'to endow' < rüe 'to give'
  • ‹ălis› = Comitative trigger
  • ‹ăm› = Source/cause trigger
  • ‹ăchem› = Benefactive/purpose trigger
  • ‹ărea› = Malefactive trigger

Lexical aspect affixes

Classical Windermere aspects became derivational, analogous to how PIE aspects became lexical in daughter IE languages. This mirrors the development in other Talman Lakovic languages but Windermere has been the most heavily affected.

Reduplicant uses 1st consonant (F) or last consonant (L)

  • imperfective/stative = unmarked; marked with li- for others
  • perfective = unmarked for some verbs but marked with em- for others
  • prospective = hef-
  • momentane = pla-
  • progressive = ăL-
  • intensive/excessive = FăL-
  • frequentative = eNFă-
  • inchoative/inceptive = osăL-
  • graduative = tăFa-


Head-initial concatenation is often used to derive expressions that would correspond to words in English. In transliteration common concatenated expressions are hyphenated, e.g. hălwier-chne 'mathematics' (lit. 'beauty of ideal/order').

The resulting meaning from concatenation is not always entirely predictable.

Archaic words also appear as cranberry morphemes in some concatenated expressions. For example, săpeath-păchnay, meaning 'patriotism', literally means "honoring the king", where săpeath means 'to honor, to revere' in archaic Windermere.

Common concatenated morphemes are:

  • tar = places (lit. 'house of')
  • hălwier = '-logy' (lit. 'beauty of')
  • wang = 'matter, affairs'
  • ngoth = 'manner, way'
  • sces = 'style of, à la'
  • ăma = 'proto, ur-' (lit. 'mother of')

Sample texts

Newton's Laws

I: Tsi'eth ămtüs mi hăllithăhuł soas mi hăltsăliet rădoan, srüe die tłith'ach e sănguac ło fid.

object remain LOC NOMZ-stationary or LOC NOMZ-speed constant, if not act NOM force on that_PRON

I: An object stays at rest, or at a constant speed, unless a force acts on it.

II: Fi ălcifol ło fi hălpășad moang fteach fid sibaganangch mif sănguac moang hașithcats șafi fteach; te fi ălcifol ișrom mi rătsof fi șădong glan moang fi sănguac yătăngap hașithcats ło sed.

DEF <VN>change on DEF STAT-ACT-move of body that_PRON proportional LOC-DEF force REL PASS-apply DAT-DEF body; and the <VN>change occur LOC path DEF line straight REL DEF force ANA PASS-apply on this_PRON

II: The change in the momentum of a body is proportional to the force applied to the body; and the change occurs along the straight line on which that force is applied.

III: Tsor sătłith'ach ruay se sătłith'ach-căräng thür.

all action have SPEC action-against equal

III: Every action has an equal and opposite reaction.

You are not obligated to complete the work, but...

Łen die nămărłof şa cithlong se thibur, tă'iep łen die pluam şa măreado fid. (Talmud, Pircey Aboth 2’21”)
2SG.M NEG obligated to complete SPEC work, but_also 2SG.M NEG free to abandon DEM_DIST
You are not obligated to complete the work, but neither are you free to abandon it. (Talmud, Pirkei Avot 2:21)


Bang fa bin'ătsoal fi lăhoal fi sngeaf imtriem, te fa băfonglis fi imșășul bang ya tsăngua te gow mi thusăyieng chngăfi, häb nga tsip crirath, päd fnga frel e 'nam im'ăngi'ong, ănam hos ristey fi chlăpsur mi wă'ua croth.

1PL.IN PERF enslave DEF rest DEF world PL-animal, and PERF treat DEF PL-cousins 1PL.IN with fur and feather ADV evil so_much, until COMP without doubt, if_counterfactual POT transmit NOM 3PL.AN story, 3PL.AN COND imagine DEF villain in form human_being.


Srüe ruay e croth patsrin, te di ruay ef păcrit rus, te rüe e sed șa fid, mitse ya sămirüe łithad tsip neab te dămiseath e fid swoch, lea mot bintănse yășithbech? Tieth, fid mot mitse paw yătithun moang binłăcthie! Thăbur ef croth ngie nuthbur papluas mi-thäș, șang fid plang łos imsrup te thusămpey moang thăprea. Wăhang, fi mocănłin pra lea chithud srüe ngil e rie "Seth" mi łäm "croth"? - Ne-Sim

From Hamlet

Uy șa ftsüen uy șa răchta, sed mot fi binbiets.
or to live or to die, this.PRON COP DEF question
To be or not to be, that is the question.

From the Internationale

Ămflü, hay tsor pachărea'i fi sngeaf!
arise, VOC all PAT-scorn DEF world
Arise, all ye scorned ones of the world!


Tsor croth fa ășeal pluam te thür mis hăltsăbas tes imłin. Ănam hac răfongüe yas hălpăthin tes hălslith'a, te pdar thușnoa e nam tănse fidoan măceaf nătha mis șăgor hălchăsräf.

all human PERF be_born free and equal in-SPEC dignity and-SPEC PL-right. 3PL PASS endow with-SPEC reason and-SPEC conscience, and must ensure NOM 3PL one act one towards other in-SPEC spirit ABST-fellow

(Mategian; Bjeheondian) [ts̠or̥ kʰr̥oð vä ʔɘˈʂeəl pʰluəm tʰe ðyr mis hlˈtsəbäs tʰes ʔimˈɬin ‖ ʔɘnäm häk rɘvoˈŋyə jäs̠ hlpɘˈðin tʰes̠ hls̠liθˈʔa, tʰe pʰɘdar ðuʃˈnoə ʔe näm tʰnze viˈdoən mɘˈkʰeəv nɘˈðä mis̠ ʂəˈɣor̥ hlxɘzˈræf]

(Wen Dămea) [tso̞:r kʰr̥o̞:ð fä əˈʃeːɤˁ pʰχˁuəm tʰe̞ θy:r mis hɤˁˈtsɑ:z tʰe̞s imˈɬi:n ‖ ənä:m häk rəvo̞ˈŋyə jäs hɤˁpəˈðin tʰe̞s hɤˁsʁˁiθˈʔa, tʰe̞ pʰta:r θuʃˈnoə ʔe̞ nä:m tʰənse̞: fiˈdoən məˈkʰeəv nəˈðä: mis ʃko̞:r hɤˁxəzˈre:v]

From the Imthumitil

This passage is from the Imthumitil Păchlac, a retranslation of the Imθumăytil into Modern Windermere by Yăchef Clay.

Modern Wdm.

Mi ngith doan tso dur e tach imchäth mis mogor litheath. Pida Brăwied chea sray bintăbiets: "Mea ra łănam dunse?"

Swe mot chmi nung ef imchäth nătha, doan chäth chea plawăsma: "Șrüch stiw! Ruay immognas tach dunse, te immălin thaf müets, te imchustiw liew..."

Łop Pida Brăwied chea tăbiets: "Wăhang, mea ra chmi, srüe hădean e do croth hiboath?"

Ăfifay chea că'aw e fid: "Lea sed die placănărnga, Pida? Bang ruay tsor tăy'ua palüc, sach se făbeang imtăy'ua nătha yaf croth mălem!"

Original (Classical Wdm.)

Doon ngiθ, dur id taχ χaaθ mi mogor lăyθeeθ. Emtăbiits Pida Brăwiid: "Măra łinam dunse?

Mi-ăngnung căχθaaθ năθa emritsal doon: "Șrüχ te-stiw: mi tsum taχ mognas, thaf te-müüts θraaφ, liiw stăliw..."

Łop emtăbiits Pida Brăwiid: "Ǎna mee ra mooχ, srüü hădeen do croθ năθa?"

Emcă'aw id χaaθ ipăyφay, "Op cănga, Pida: șa-bang tsor pădiiχ φnărtaang, sach φăbeeng păχwădiiχ năθa ya-croθ năθa φi!"


Once, six children were in a round table. Master Brăwied asked them a question: "How many of you are here?"

While the others were still counting, one child called out: "Sixty-three! 6 individuals, 15 teams of two, 20 teams of 3, ..."

Then Master Brăwied asked: "Well then, how many people will be there if another person enters?"

The child nonchalantly responded: "Isn't it obvious, Master? Here we have all of the old teams, as well as another set of teams with the new person!"


Windermere poetry is based on rhyming and lines with set numbers of syllables. Rhyming prose is a common poetic form.